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  • You told me you want to study English with moviesAnd a lot of you suggested a Will Smith movie,  

  • The Pursuit of Happyness”. By the waythe title of this film is intentionally  

  • misspelled. If you're going to write this  word, you definitely want to use an I. 

  • We'll do a full pronunciation  study of his job interview.  

  • So if you're going to have a job interview in  English anytime soon, this could be great for you.  

  • We'll study reductions, linking, stressAll the things that make up the character  

  • of spoken American English. You'll  be surprised what you'll learn

  • As always, if you like this  video or you learn something new,  

  • please give it a thumbs up and subscribe and  don't forget to click that notification bell.

  • Let's watch the clips we'll study together.

  • Chris, what would you say if a guy walked  in for an interview without a shirt on

  • And I hired him. What would you say?

  • He must've on some really nice pants.

  • (laughing)

  • Chris

  • You really pulled it off in there. Thank you very much Mr. Twistle

  • Hey, now you can call me Jay. Will talk to you soon.

  • And now the analysis.

  • Chris

  • Chris, He's saying his name and that's got a big  up-down shape of stress. So that's the shape of a  

  • stressed syllable in American English. Chris 

  • We don't have flat pitches for  our stressed syllables. They  

  • have change in direction. Usually, it goes up  and then down every once in a while it goes  

  • down and comes back up. But what's importantit's not flat. Chris, Chris, Chris. Chris.

  • Chris

  • And the CH letters there are making a K  sound. CH in American English can be the  

  • SH sounds like in chef or Chicagoit can be K sounds like Chris  

  • or choir and of course it  can be a CH sound like in choose

  • Chris

  • What would you say

  • What would you say. Then he puts a little breakSo, when we have little breaks, that means the  

  • words aren't linking together, there's a little  pause but aside from that break everything does  

  • link together and we call that a thought group. So  he puts a break after Chris. He puts a break after  

  • say. So these four words linked together smoothly  and we don't want a feeling of choppiness.  

  • Words within a thought group should be very  smooth and the melody should be smooth as well,  

  • no jumps or skips in the melody. So let's  listen to the melody of this phrase.

  • What would you say--

  • What would you say. What would you say. So would  unstressed but what, some of that length and  

  • the up-down shape, you also has some of the  up-down shape and then I think say actually  

  • goes the opposite way, starts going back up. So  when we make the melody of our voice go up at  

  • the end of a phrase that means that we're going to  continue. It's a signal that we have more to say.  

  • What, what would. What would. The T here is  a stop T unreleased, it's not T, what would,  

  • what would but what would, what wouldIt's also not dropped. It's not wha would,  

  • wha would. We have that little  skip that little lift. What would.

  • What would--

  • The D sound in you also not releasedIt's not would you but would you.  

  • Right from that vibration  of the vocal cords of the D  

  • into the Y consonant. Now the letterin would isn't pronounced. What would.

  • What would

  • What would you say,

  • What would you say. Smoothly connected, no skips  and if you're practicing just those first two  

  • words what and would, make sure you're feeling  a difference there. What is stressed, would is  

  • unstressed, it shouldn't feel the same. It's  not what, would but it's what would, what would.

  • What would

  • What would you say if a guy walked in  for an interview without a shirt on.

  • And now he finishes his thought group.

  • if a guy walked in for an  interview without a shirt on.

  • Really this is a question isn't it? He's saying  what, what would you say. His intonation does  

  • go down at the end. So sometimes people think  for questions, intonation always goes up. But  

  • that's now actually true. Definitely for yes no  questions it's true but questions that cannot be  

  • answered by yes or no usually the pitch goes  down at the end which is what happens here.

  • if a guy walked in for an  interview without a shirt on.

  • So let's just look at this thought group  again. We have a lot of words but no breaks.  

  • It's not if a guy walked in. But it's ifguy walked in. Ahhuauh. Smooth connection.

  • if a guy walked in

  • Let's listen to it, see if you can identify. What  are our longer syllables with a change in pitch?

  • if a guy walked in

  • If a guy walked in. if a guy walked, a little  bit on guy but really the peak of stress there  

  • is walked. If and a, they're just sort  of part of the melody going up. If a,  

  • if a, if a, if a. It's not if a but they're said  quickly, they're unstressed. If a guy walked in.

  • if a guy walked in

  • Walked. This is another word with a silent L just like  would. Now the ED ending in the word walked is  

  • pronounced as a T. And we have three different  pronunciations for the ED ending. I do have a  

  • playlist on those ED endings so you can click  here or see the link in the video description.

  • Walked in

  • Walked in, walked in.  

  • The T is just now released by itselfIt's released into the next word in.  

  • Walked in, walked in. So it's not quite as strongit's subtle but this kind of linking is important.  

  • Because within thought groups we  want to sounds to flow continuously.

  • Walked in

  • For an interview without a shirt on.

  • Walked in for an interview, an interviewmore stress there without a shirt on.  

  • So walked in and stress, I'm sorry, and shirt are  our most stressed syllables there. After walked,  

  • we have some unstressed syllables in, for, an  and they're not fully pronounced like that,  

  • are they? In for an, in for an, in  for an, in for an, in for an. Can you  

  • understand that I'm saying those three words? In for an. And they're all linked together,  

  • the word for reduces. For, for. You can almost  think of it as not having any vowel at all. It's  

  • the schwa R sound. And the R links right into  the schwa for our article an. For an for an,  

  • for an. In for an, in for an, in for anReally unclear. And that's what we want in  

  • our unstressed syllables. We have walked and  interview. But in for an becomes in for an.  

  • in for an. in for an. We need that contrast of  clear and less clear. Now you may have noticed  

  • in the word interview he dropped the T soundThat's really common. T after N especially in the  

  • word part inter. Interview, internetinternational. Really really common to drop the T.

  • Walked in for an interview without a shirt on

  • A little bit of stress on out. Withoutwithout, without a, without (flap).  

  • What's happening to that T? That becomes a flap T.  I write that with the letter D. Because it sounds  

  • like the D between vowels in American EnglishBut it's coming between two vowel diphthong  

  • sounds. We have the OU diphthong in the  word out. And we have the schwa and so a T  

  • between those two sounds is just (flap) going to  flap against the tongue. Without a, without a.

  • Without a --

  • And there's no break between interview  and without either. Interview with, view  

  • with. Keep that sound going  continuously, no choppiness.

  • Interview without a

  • Interview without a shirt on.

  • Without a shirt on. Now what's happening with this  T? Shirt on. (flap). It's another flap T, why? It  

  • doesn't come between two vowel of diphthong sounds  because this is an R. Well the rules for flap T  

  • include after an R before a vowel or diphthongSo like in the word party, that's a flap T,  

  • it comes after an R before a vowel or diphthong. In the phrase shirt on. Shirt (flap) on.Flap T.

  • without a shirt on.

  • Let's listen just to without a shirt on in slow  motion so you can really focus in on those flaps,  

  • You're not hearing ttt, that true T.

  • without a shirt on.

  • And I hired him.

  • Okay and he has one more thought group  here. Everything links together. And I  

  • hired him. Everything is going up towards  the peak of stress on our verb. And I,  

  • and I is just on the way to that peak of stressAnd I hired him. One line, smoothly connected.

  • And I hired him.

  • We have a couple reductions. We have and,  

  • D is dropped. And I, and I. And that N consonant  links right into the I diphthong. And I hired him.

  • And I hired him.

  • Hired him. Hired him. Can you tell that  there's no H there. He's not saying hired him.  

  • He's saying hired him. Dropping the H, it's  pretty common to drop the H in the word him,  

  • her, his, he. Definitely something  that we do. And then we just link it  

  • on the word before. So here the ED ending  makes a D sound. Hired him. Hired him.

  • Hired him.

  • What would you say

  • We have a four word thought group here. One word  is the most stressed. Let's listen to it three  

  • times. You tell me where your body wants to movewhere do you feel the most stress is. If you were  

  • going to move your head once or move your hand  once on the stress. Where would your body do that?

  • What would you say?

  • What would you say? Ahuhauh. I definitely  hear that you is our one stress word,  

  • what and would lead up to it  and then say falls away from it.

  • What would you say?

  • What. Stop T again not released. I should say  with the Wh words, there is a pronunciation that  

  • has an escape of air before what, whatwhite, why. Have you ever noticed that?  

  • It's not very common anymore and he doesn't do  that escape of air. It's just a clean W sound.

  • What would---

  • What would, What would. Now we have a word  ending in D, the next word is you, something  

  • interesting happening with the pronunciationListen three times and see if you can hear it.

  • What would you--

  • What would you, dyou, dyou, do you hear thatIt's a really clear J sound. Ju, ju. When a word  

  • ends in a D and the next word is you or yourit's not uncommon to hear it turn it into a J,  

  • I think it sorts of helps smoothly link the  two words together. We'd love smoothness in  

  • American English. What would you say? And then the  voice falls down in pitch, everything connected.

  • What would you--

  • What would you say?

  • He must've had on some really nice pants.

  • He must've had on some. So in this thought  group we have a first word stressed.  

  • He must've had on some. And then we have  a bunch of words that are less stressed,  

  • flatter in pitch than our last three  words stressed, longer. Really nice pants.

  • He must've had on some really nice pants.

  • Make sure everything is connected and  smooth but also make sure you have rhythmic  

  • contrast. Speed up these words, make them less  clear, we need that. He must've had on some.  

  • Do you notice must've. What's happening thereThe word have is being reduced all the way down  

  • to a single sound. The schwa, must've. Must've  had on some. The D flaps as it links had and on.  

  • Must've had on some

  • He must've had on some--

  • And the word some. Not really fully pronounced.  I would write that with a schwa instead of  

  • the UH as in butter sound. Some, some. He  must've had on some. He must've had on some.

  • He must've had on some---

  • And then our last three words clearerlonger, up-down shape of stress.

  • Really nice pants.

  • Really nice pants. The word pants. The vowel  there is a little tricky, it's the AH vowel  

  • as in bat but when it's followed by N like it is  here, we make a sound in between. It's like the UH  

  • as in butter vowel, back of the tongue relaxesSo it's not ah, pa, pants. But it's pae, ae,  

  • things relaxed and it changes the soundPae, pants. Pants, pants not pants.

  • Pants.

  • (laughing)

  • Chris..

  • Chris. Chris. Again, just like in the  beginning we have a name a proper noun,  

  • stressed word, a single syllable so it  has that up-down shape. Chris. Chris.

  • Chris.

  • You really pulled it off in there.

  • You really pulled it off in there. So we have  a little bit of stress on really. You really  

  • pulled it. But most of on off in there. Most  of it on off. Pull off. This is a phrasal verb.

  • You really pulled it off in there.

  • And it has a couple of different meanings. In  this case it means to succeed at something,  

  • to achieve something. He had an interview  

  • and they loved him. He succeeded at  that interview, he really pulled it off.

  • You really pulled it off in there.

  • The ed ending in pulled is just the D sound  and that links right into the e vowel,  

  • for smoothness. Pulled it, pulled itYou really pulled it off. Now we have a T  

  • between vowels. Let's listen for that.

  • It off--

  • It off, it off (flap). Yup, definitely a flap.  

  • You know we don't have many rules in American  English pronunciation that people follow but flap  

  • T, we follow that pretty well. Between two vowels  or diphthong sounds or after an R before a vowel  

  • or diphthong sound we flap it. Pulled it offIt off, it off, it off. Pulled it off in there.

  • Pulled it off in there.

  • If it helps you to link more smoothly, think  of the ending consonant as beginning the next  

  • word. So rather than thinking off in, you can  think off-in. Off in, off in, off in there.

  • off in there.

  • Thank you very much Mr. Twistle.

  • So he stresses the word much and thank younot very clear as in thank you very much Mr.  

  • Twistle. And then of course, stress on the name as  well. But this is a nice way to show the contrast  

  • between the stress word much and the unstressed  word thank you. So if all he had said was thank  

  • you, it probably would have been more clear. Thank  you, thank you. But instead he wanted to stress  

  • much. So thank you became less clear. Thank  you, thank you, thank you. Thank you very much.

  • Thank you very much--

  • It's important that we don't have that stress  feel for every word. Thank you very much.  

  • Thank you very much. That stop sounding natural  

  • in American English. We have to have that  contrast of the more clear and the less clear.

  • Thank you very much--

  • Thank you very much Mr. Twistle.

  • So we have a peak of stress on muchMuch Mr. then Mr. becomes a little valley  

  • Mr. Twistle before our next peak of stress.

  • Much Mr. Twistle.

  • Hey, now you can call me Jay.

  • He says hey, hey. Just a little  utterance. Not very clear, not very loud.  

  • Hey. Now you can call me Jay. And we have the  stress on the first word and the last word there.  

  • The words in between, less clear, part  of that valley. Hey, now you can call me.  

  • And we even have a reduction. How do you think  this word is pronounced? You might think oh, I  

  • know that word. It's can. But actually most of the  time it's not pronounced that way. Let's listen.

  • Now you can call me Jay.

  • You can call me. You call me. I'm going to  give a little bit of up down on call but can,  

  • what is happening to it? We reduced that and  we have just the schwa instead of the ah vowel.  

  • Now schwa mixes with an, we kind of loose it  all together. So it's really just can, can, can  

  • like there's no vowel at all. Now you  can, now you can. And he even doesn't  

  • make those consonant sounds very clear does  he? That word is so fast. It almost gets lost.

  • You can call me--

  • Jay.

  • You can call me Jay. So a lot of rhythmic contrast  there. You can so short. Call, a little longer.  

  • Jay, even longer. Me, also short. We  love that contrast in American English.

  • You can call me Jay.

  • Alright.

  • Alright. Alright. Not very clear, he nods  his head. Alright. I would still write  

  • that with an up-down shape of stress but  it's not very clear, it's sort of mumbled

  • Alright.

  • Stop T at the end and probably nosound. Just a,a,a. Alright, alright.

  • Alright.

  • We'll talk to you soon.