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  • Welcome, avid learner of linguistics! In this video you're going to learn about the

  • conceptual metaphor

  • and what it can do for you

  • So let's get cracking!

  • First of all we should ask ourselves where we can find a metaphor,

  • just to have something nice at hand.

  • And the key answer

  • that is and always will be correct is:

  • in poetry!

  • So:

  • Why not take a glimpse at this bloke's Sonnet 18!

  • Let's start reading...

  • Shall I compare thee to a summer's day...

  • Hold it! There we have it already

  • a metaphor!

  • Why should we compare someone to a summer's day?

  • Simply because we have no idea what said person looks like.

  • The idea of the summer's day, however,

  • gives us a clue off what the person is not:

  • a freezing-cold blizzard beast with icicles for boobies...

  • We think of this summer's day

  • that it's warm and nice;

  • everyone likes it and it's pretty...

  • So this is what this person is like.

  • Now, let's come to the grey-matter part.

  • The word "metaphor" comes from Greek "metaphero"

  • which means "to carry over" or "transfer".

  • The idea is actually pretty simple:

  • In a metaphor we have two domains that we employ in the transfer of meaning.

  • The source domain

  • from which we draw a concept

  • and the target domaine of which we have no clue what it actually is

  • and into which the concept from the source domain is being transferred.

  • Let me give you an example:

  • Time. What is time?

  • You see,

  • we don't really know what time is

  • but somehow we want to talk about it.

  • As you see here on the target domain there isn't a picture of time because you

  • simply can't find one.

  • But what if i present to you our source domain "money"?

  • We all have a pretty clear idea of how money works:

  • you can spend it

  • you can win it steal it, earn it, save it lose it and so on...

  • And this is where metaphor kicks in:

  • We can get a nice picture of time

  • by resorting to the concept of money.

  • When thinking

  • that time is money, we can say

  • we can spend time steel time save time waste time and so on.

  • Do you see it?

  • This is our metaphor!

  • "Time is Money" !

  • And it works so well because time and money are analogous systems.

  • That means they both react in similar ways.

  • This is a feature metaphor called systematicity.

  • Another feature of metaphor is abstraction

  • which means that the two concepts employed in a metaphor behave similarly,

  • but have no real connection.

  • Their connection is an abstract one.

  • The third feature is asymmetry, which means that the transfer works only from the

  • concrete concept

  • to the abstract concept and not the other way round.

  • The process of metaphor is always directed from the source to the target domain.

  • Now you know how metaphors work.

  • So why don't you have a look at this?

  • The famous metaphor

  • from the film "Forrest Gump":

  • Life is like a box of chocolates.

  • And if you have some spare time left, you can think about the philosophical

  • question

  • of how metaphor actually shapes and buy some degree

  • restricts our perception and our way of thinking.

  • Now that we had done with metaphor

  • why don't we talk about metaphor's best friend metonomy?

  • If you want to know what metonymy is, click the "what the heck is

  • metonymy?" button!

  • See you!

Welcome, avid learner of linguistics! In this video you're going to learn about the

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B1 metaphor domain summer day concept summer transfer

Explained: The Conceptual Metaphor

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    阿多賓 posted on 2014/01/16
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