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  • Levels of measurementthese can be split into two groups: qualitative and quantitative

  • data.

  • They are very intuitive, so don’t worry.

  • Qualitative data can be nominal or ordinal.

  • Nominal variables are like the categories we talked about just nowMercedes, BMW

  • or Audi, or like the four seasonswinter, spring, summer and autumn.

  • They aren’t numbers and cannot be put in any order.

  • Ordinal data, on the other hand, consists of groups and categories but follows a strict

  • order.

  • Imagine you have been asked to rate your lunch and the options are: disgusting, unappetizing,

  • neutral, tasty, and delicious.

  • Although we have words and not numbers, it is obvious that these preferences are ordered

  • from negative to positive, thus the data is qualitative, ordinal.

  • Okay, so what about quantitative variables?

  • Well, as you may have guessed by now, they are also split into two groups: interval and

  • ratio.

  • Intervals and ratios are both represented by numbers but have one major difference.

  • Ratios have a true zero and intervals don’t.

  • For example, length is a ratio variable.

  • You all know that 0 inches or 0 feet means that there is no length.

  • With temperature, however, we have a different story.

  • It is usually an interval variable.

  • Let me explain.

  • Usually, it is expressed in Celsius or Fahrenheit.

  • They are both interval variables.

  • 0 degrees Celsius or 0 degrees Fahrenheit don’t not mean anything, as the absolute

  • zero temperature is actually -273.15 degrees Celsius, or -459.67 degrees Fahrenheit.

  • However, we can easily say that 80 degrees Fahrenheit is less than 100 degrees Fahrenheit.

  • In the case of interval variables, the difference is meaningful, but the 0 is not.

  • Continuing this temperature example, there is another scaleKelvin’s.

  • According to it, the absolute minimum temperature is 0 degrees Kelvin.

  • Therefore, if the degrees are stated in Kelvin’s the variable will be a ratio.

  • So.

  • Numbers like 2, 3, 10, 10.5, Pi, etc. can be both interval or ratio, but you have to

  • be careful with the context you are operating in.

  • Alright!

  • Weve quickly gone through the types of data and the measurement levels.

Levels of measurementthese can be split into two groups: qualitative and quantitative

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