Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles In 2015, the United Nations turned 70. Since World War II, the UN has existed to foster communication between its member states to achieve global goals, which would be impossible individually. But how do they do this? How exactly does the UN work? Well, the UN is divided into six main parts. The first is the General Assembly, which includes nearly all internationally recognized countries, making up 193 member states. The Assembly meets annually in September, and debates issues on security and diplomacy. In 2015 the major topic was climate change, and helping developing countries face the threat of global warming. Within the General Assembly, resolutions relating to defense, as well as administrative issues like new membership and budget, require a two-thirds vote. Most other issues only need a majority. Every country, regardless of size, gets a single vote. However, there are two states in the UN which are not actual members. The Vatican, whose government is called The Holy See, and Palestine. These are called permanent non-member observer states, and while they cannot vote, they are allowed to take part in debates. The second arm of the UN is the Security Council. It exists to prevent conflict on a large scale, promoting peace through diplomacy or sanctions. It only has five permanent members: Russia, France, China, the UK and the US, which were the winning powers in WWII. The permanent members have veto power, and their use has been incredibly controversial. The US, for example, has vetoed dozens of resolutions against Israel for their actions in the Middle East. There are ten more members representing Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and Western Europe. Those ten are elected on a rolling basis every two years to make sure the major world regions have representation. The security council's resolutions are carried out by the UN's peacekeeping force, which boasts about 100,000 soldiers. One of the most important parts of the UN is the Economic and Social Council, which works to improve standards of living and support human rights. Most of what the UN actually does is centered around helping developing countries. The council works with specialized agencies like the World Health Organization and the High Commission for Refugees to make that happen. The judicial arm of the UN is the International Court of Justice. This is where international law violations are debated and prosecuted. Although countries with significant power can often refuse to comply with the decision. The fifth arm of the UN is actually not operational. The Trusteeship Council was created in the 1940s to help developing territories and dependencies become independent countries. After helping more than 70 countries gain independence, the council was suspended in 1994. And finally, the Secretariat is essentially the internal, administrative workings of the UN. They're the ones who compile reports, communicate between the different councils, and are headed by the UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-moon. Although the UN exists to promote global cooperation, many have criticized the greater influence of the five permanent security council members. Still, the UN has seen incredible advances in hunger, poverty, child mortality, health care, drugs, women's rights, and other global improvement areas. Without communication and cooperation, the world would be considerably worse. Want to get a deep dive into why the UN Security Council has 5 permanent members? Check out Seeker Daily's video to find out more. Thanks for watching! Be sure to subscribe for more TestTube News. We'll see you next time.