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  • increase the number of illegal immigrants in America.

  • What? How could it possibly?

  • Here, I'll show you.

  • Just building a wall would be practically impossible.

  • This is where it would be.

  • (dog squeals)

  • It would have to stretch over 2,000 miles of rough terrain...

  • cutting through mountains,

  • rivers, villages

  • and even people's homes.

  • And all that destruction is monstrously expensive.

  • Just building the wall

  • would cost between $15 and $25 billion.

  • (woman gasps)

  • It would easily be one of the single most

  • expensive pieces of infrastructure

  • in American history costing as much as 20 Hoover Dams

  • or NASA's entire annual budget.

  • (man) That's one small step for man,

  • one giant wall for no reason.

  • Not to mention the astronomical cost

  • of staffing and maintaining the wall,

  • which taxpayers like you and your children

  • will be stuck paying forever.

  • I paid for the wall.

  • My father's father paid for the wall.

  • And one day you will pay for the wall.

  • Because this is Wall World.

  • Even just faking the wall for our show

  • was prohibitively expensive.

  • Looks like our CGI budget ran out.

  • Okay, yes, it may be expensive

  • but that doesn't change the fact

  • that once we build it, it will work.

  • Not like you think.

  • Increasing security at the border

  • will never stop illegal immigration.

  • Why not?

  • No one's getting passed me.

  • Yes, they are because it's estimated that

  • between 27% and 40% of all undocumented immigrants

  • in America came here on planes.

  • (plane passing)

  • I forgot about planes.

  • These immigrants didn't sneak over the border.

  • They came here legally through passport control,

  • then just overstayed their visas.

  • And guess what? A border wall's

  • not gonna stop 'em because, reminder...

  • You fools!

  • You forgot about planes!

  • We always forget about planes!

  • Even by your estimate of visa overstays,

  • the wall would still

  • stop about half

  • of America's 11 million illegal immigrants.

  • No, it wouldn't.

  • 'Cause of a little something called circular flow.

  • Here, I'll show you.

  • (dog yelps)

  • For decades, immigration to the U.S. was a circular flow.

  • People would come,

  • work for a bit

  • and then after they were done, go home to their families.

  • Meet Douglas Massey.

  • Thanks, Adam.

  • My arms were getting pretty tired waiting for my cue.

  • He's a professor at Princeton

  • and a pioneering researcher on this topic.

  • When the Reagan, Bush and Clinton administrations

  • drastically increased border

  • enforcement in response

  • to public opinion,

  • they stopped that circular flow.

  • Not by keeping people out, but by keeping people in.

  • (Douglas) As it got harder and harder to go back and forth,

  • people crossing

  • the border decided

  • they were much better off just staying in the U.S.

  • If I go back to Mexico now,

  • he won't let me back in the U.S.

  • I guess I'll just stay here...

  • in Tucson.

  • Ironically, this increase

  • in border enforcement

  • caused the number of undocumented immigrants

  • living in the United States to skyrocket by 248%.

  • It's counterintuitive, but building a wall

  • wouldn't stop people from coming in.

  • It would actually stop them from going back.

  • In fact, the whole idea of

  • building a border wall

  • is misguided.

  • The Mexican economy is doing quite well right now

  • and population growth has slowed way down.

  • So, there's not much pressure to emigrate.

  • The number of illegal border crossings

  • is actually at an all-time low.

  • If you're a professor, then why are you in the desert?

  • I'm not, I'm a mirage.

  • (gasping) Hey!

  • Look, humanity discovered vast deposits

  • of fuel buried deep within the earth.

  • We learned to extract it, burn it for energy,

  • and release it into the air,

  • and about 150 years ago,

  • we rebuilt our entire civilization

  • around that energy source.

  • We burn it to travel, we burn it to eat,

  • we burn it to live.

  • Fossil fuels brought about one of the greatest increases

  • in standard of living in human history.

  • We could never go back.

  • But by burning this incredible fuel source,

  • we are also inexorably heating the earth.

  • 2015 was the hottest year

  • since we started keeping records in 1880.

  • And thanks to rising ocean temperatures,

  • average sea levels have already risen

  • about eight inches.

  • And we're in for a lot worse.

  • This is Dale Jamieson.

  • He's a professor of Environmental Studies at NYU.

  • Wayne, we've already done so much damage to the atmosphere

  • that we'll be lucky if we can hold the warming

  • to two degrees Celsius.

  • Two degrees?

  • Well, that's just the difference

  • between a jacket and a slightly lighter jacket.

  • Not to the earth, it isn't.

  • Just two degrees of warming could cause huge draughts,

  • massive wildfires, the loss of many species,

  • the collapse of our agricultural productivity,

  • and the rising sea levels

  • could make our coastal cities uninhabitable.

  • And remember, two degrees of warming

  • is the best we can realistically hope for.

  • The question isn't, will warming happen?

  • The question is, how bad will it be?

  • That's terrible.

  • Isn't there something

  • I can do?

  • The sad truth is that we've already put

  • so much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

  • that we're more than halfway towards

  • that two-degree centigrade limit.

  • And right now, companies and countries already own

  • enough fossil fuel in reserves

  • to meet that limit five times over.

  • Five times over?

  • To keep it in the ground,

  • they'd have to give up trillions of dollars

  • and we'd have to change our entire way of life.

  • And what happens

  • if we burn it?

  • What happens to our planet then?

  • I don't know, but it won't be our planet anymore.

  • What happens to our planetible.?

  • What could be the downside?

  • Oh, there are a ton.

  • For starters, how 'bout the fact that this place

  • rips off folks like you every day.

  • Whatever.

  • I know the hospital is expensive,

  • but it is worth it if I get the best treatment.

  • No, it isn't.

  • American health care is not the best in the world.

  • But despite that, we spend more per person annually

  • on health care than any other developed nation.

  • And a big part of the reason for that

  • is that American hospitals overcharge patients massively.

  • (music playing, cheering and applause)

  • This neck brace is worth $20.

  • But the hospital charged him... $154.

  • This I.V. bag cost less than a buck.

  • But she was charged $137.

  • These are real prices, folks.

  • Hold up.

  • Wildly inflated