B2 High-Intermediate US 46 Folder Collection
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- [Instructor] What you
see in these pictures,

this is a forward view
of a transparent man

or a semitransparent man,
and this is a posterior, or back view
of a semitransparent woman.
But what these organs that are depicted,
these organs secrete molecules
into the bloodstream,

and an organ that secretes things,
these are called glands,
and they secrete these
molecules into the blood stream

that regulate other parts of the body,
things that might be quite
far away from the organs,

the glands that actually do the secretion.
And so these molecules
that regulate other parts of the body,
these are called hormones.
And the word hormone
comes from Greek hormōn,

which means to set in motion,
so one way to think about
it, these are molecules

that set things in motion
in other parts of the body,

and this is really to
regulate the body function.

Now this entire system
of glands is referred to

as the endocrine system,
endo- referring to fact that

it's acting within the body,
-crine originally comes

from Greek word to sift or
to differentiate something

and it's a system of organs
or I guess you could say glands
that are secreting molecules,
these hormones into the
bloodstream to regulate the body.

I'm not going to go in-depth
in all of these endocrine glands
but just to give you an
appreciation of what they do

and what these hormones are all about,
we could list some of the more common ones
that you might hear about.
So for example, the thyroid
gland produces thyroid hormone.

This is a version of thyroid hormone.
You see your carbons in the dark gray,
your hydrogens in the white.
You see your oxygens in
the red, nitrogen in blue,

and these big atoms right
over here, these are iodine,

and thyroid hormone
plays an important role

in your metabolism.
In fact, if you have too
much thyroid hormone,

that's a disorder called hyperthyroidism,
which would make your
metabolism overactive.

Likewise, if you have too
little thyroid hormone,

that's a disorder known as hypothyroidism,
in which case your metabolism
isn't active enough.

You have hormones like adrenaline
that are released by the adrenal glands,
and that's where it gets
the word adrenaline from.

It's often known as epinephrine,
and adrenaline, you
might hear things like,

"Hey, so and so is an adrenaline junkie,"
which means they really like a thrill,
and adrenaline actually
does play a role there.

It's involved in the
fight-or-flight response,

where it'll increase your heart rate
and increase blood flow to the muscles.
And what's really interesting
about all of these hormones

is they have so many impacts on the body
because they're released
into the bloodstream

and to different cells they
might do different things.

This right over here is
a variation of estrogen,

which is produced primarily
in females in the ovaries,

but it also exists in a male body
and it's associated with a
lot of female bodily function,

but once again, not strictly female.
Estrogen also exists in males.
Similarly, you have testosterone,
which is associated with male function
but it also exists in females,
and it's primarily produced
in men in the testes.

Thus the name testosterone,
but it can also be produced
by the adrenal glands.

And women, it can be
produced by the ovaries.

But you could also have
a molecule like insulin

which you can see is much
larger than the other hormones

that we have looked at.
It's produced in the pancreas
and it plays a super-important role
in how we process sugars
and how we store fat

and scientists are constantly
discovering new roles

for these various hormones.
Insulin in particular you
might associate with diabetes.

People with Type 1 diabetes
aren't able to produce

enough insulin to take the
sugar out of their blood stream,

to have the cells absorb the sugar.
Insulin will bind to the surface of a cell
so that it will start taking in sugar
from the blood stream.
People with Type 2 diabetes,
they have an insensitivity

to insulin, so they might
have to take extra insulin

in order for their cells to
take in the proper amount

of sugar.
But the big idea here is
that the endocrine system,

although it might not be as obvious,
or it might not be as well known
as something like say the nervous system,
it plays a pivotal role in your body.
It helps regulate your body.
It helps keep it at the right temperature,
the right blood pressure,
your heart pumping at the right rate.
One way to think about this is
the notion of homeostasis, which is
derived from similar and staying the same.
So keeping your body at
the right temperature

regardless of what the
temperature is outside

or regardless of what your body is doing,
there's a whole series of
roles that these hormones,

which are released by
these endocrine glands

actually do.
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Endocrine system introduction

46 Folder Collection
Amy.Lin published on March 16, 2019
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