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  • The central dogma of molecular biology;

  • DNA makes RNA makes protein.

  • Here the process begins.

  • Transcription factors assemble at a specific promoter region along the DNA.

  • The length of DNA following the promoter is a gene, and it contains the recipe for a protein.

  • A mediator protein complex arrives carrying the enzyme RNA polymerase;

  • it maneuvers the RNA polymerase in to place,

  • inserting it with the help of other factors between the strands of the DNA double helix.

  • The assembled collection of all these factors is referred to as the

  • transcription initiation complex, and now it is ready to be activated.

  • The initiation complex requires contact with activator proteins, which bind to

  • specific sequences of DNA known as enhancer regions;

  • these regions maybe thousands of base pairs distant from the start of the gene.

  • Contact between the activator proteins and the initiation complex releases the copying mechanism.

  • The RNA polymerase unzips a small portion of the DNA helix, exposing the bases on each strand.

  • Only one of the strands is copied;

  • it acts as a template for the synthesis of an RNA molecule which is assembled

  • one sub-unit at a time by matching the DNA letter code on the template strand.

  • The sub-units can be seen here entering the enzyme through its intake hole, and they

  • are joined together to form the long messenger RNA chains snaking out of the top.

The central dogma of molecular biology;

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