B1 Intermediate US 4114 Folder Collection
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Hi, this is Emily, from MinuteEarth.
Penguins like cold - they're built for it, and most live in the cold waters near Antarctica.
But over 4000 miles north, in the tropical Galapagos Islands, you can also find penguins,
because of something called the Cromwell Current.
This cold-water current flows from west to east around a hundred meters below the ocean
surface, until it collides with the underwater part of the Galapagos islands and turns upward
towards the surface.
The current helps the penguins stay cool, but even more importantly, it helps them eat.
That's because it brings together nutrients and sunlight, the key ingredients that make
green algae thrive, which allows penguins' food to thrive too.
Across most of the ocean, there's a sort of cruel separation between these ingredients,
because sunlight only penetrates the top layer of water, while nutrients sink.
What's more, because the sun-warmed surface waters are less dense than the colder waters
below, the two layers don't easily mix.
It takes winds or a current to bring the nutrient-rich waters up to the sunlit surface.
Essentially, the ocean is like a salad dressing, where the denser vinegar stays trapped below
the oil until you shake it up.
Where the ocean doesn't get shaken up, both green algae and the critters that eat it are
relatively sparse.
But where it mixes, like at the Galapagos Islands, algae - and the rest of the food
chain - can thrive.
Of course, penguins are more common in colder climates, partly because icy surface waters
mix more readily with cold, nutrient-rich waters below.
But the world's cold, northern oceans don't have any penguins, because these flightless
birds evolved in the South, and it seems that although changes in climate over time may
have helped them migrate northwards, there's simply too much warm, nutrient-poor water
between them and the Arctic.
In fact, the world's only northern penguins are the Galapagos penguins that live at the
tip of Isabela Island, just a hair – or a feather – above the equator.
I'm not a penguin - I'm Ever, the creative director here at MinuteEarth.
Instead of fish, I need the internet to survive, and I have a ton of different accounts on
all sorts of different websites.
For years, I created my passwords by relying on repetition, mnemonic devices and even post-it
notes, which meant that they were insecure and I sometimes lost them.
But since we started using Dashlane, my life has changed.
Dashlane generates and stores secure passwords for all my accounts and helps me change them
when the time comes, so my memory is free to store more important things.
If you want to experience the peace of mind that comes with having secure passwords, try
Dashlane for free today by clicking on the link in the description.
You can also use the special promo code "minuteearth" to get 10% off Dashlane Premium.
    You must  Log in  to get the function.
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Why Are There Penguins At The Equator?

4114 Folder Collection
Evangeline published on August 8, 2018    Rong Chiang translated    Evangeline reviewed
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