B1 Intermediate US 807 Folder Collection
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Biology is the subject that studies life in
all of its forms. The most basic unit and

the foundation of all life is the cell.
They're incredibly complicated molecular
factories and cellular biology studies the

structure and functions of the many different
things inside a cell. Cells were evolving

for over 3 billion years until multicellular
animals appeared. That's over two thirds

of the age of the Earth! So no wonder they
are so complicated.

Cells are the smallest things that we think
can be counted as life. Unfortunately there

isn't a good definition of life that everyone
agrees on. For example, viruses, evolve and

replicate but they need other life to do so.
Are they alive? Sort of but not really.

Molecular Biology looks into the insides of
cells and studies how the different systems

work with each other on a molecular basis.
It looks at DNA, RNA, amino acids and the

creation of proteins, how they interact with
each other and what affects these interactions.

This is related to structural biology which
looks at the shape of biological molecules

like amino acids, nucleic acids, and enzymes;
why they have those structures and how differences

in their structure affects how they work.
Biochemistry goes one step even deeper and
looks at how these biological molecules interact

with each other on a chemical level. Life
is essentially a load of complex chemical

reactions and biochemistry studies the underlying
chemical signals and reactions of life.

The molecules of life are too small to see
with optical microscopes and so many techniques

in physics like x-ray crystallography, or
cryo-electron microscopy are used to see the

structure of biomolecules. As well as tools
for studying life, biophysics and quantum

biology also look at the physics that underpins
biological processes, seeking to explain how

things work on a physical level.
Your DNA holds the blueprint of who you are
and genetics is the study of how this information

is expressed to create all of the different
forms of life through genes, and how this

information is passed on from one generation
to the next.

Population genetics looks at the genetic differences
within a species and how species differ from

one another.
The DNA code of an organism is huge and so
we need computers to find patterns in the

data. Bioinformatics is the subject that uses
computer programming to analyse and interpret

biological data in genetics, and also many
other fields. Wherever the amount of data

is too large to analyse with previous statistical

Biomathematics uses the tools of mathematics
to build models of biological processes and

is used in many different areas from genetics
to biotechnology to studying ecosystems.

You started off as a single cell, how that
cell divided and grew into you is studied

by developmental biology. An interesting area
in developmental biology is the growth and

differentiation of stem cells into the different
cells in your body.

Anatomy looks at the the structure and organisation
at the scale of entire organisms. It includes

both plants and animals and seeks to label
all of the different components that make

up an organism.
Biomechanics looks at how parts of the body
are designed for movement. The most obvious

is the articulation of our limbs, but it also
includes the flow of fluids or the mechanical

properties of bones or tissues like the valves
in our heart. At the microscopic level it

also looks at the strength or flexibility
of cells or parts of cells.

While anatomy studies what organisms are made
of, Physiology studies how these parts work

and interact with each other. It seeks to
understand how all of the different components

in an organism work together to keep it functioning

Immunology studies our immune system, how
it protects us from infection in a multitude

of ways. It also investigates the many different
ways our immune system can go wrong: allergies,

autoimmunity where your immune system attacks
your own body, to wider conditions like cancer

and many other illnesses.
The increased lifespan of humans has been
helped significantly by biomedical research:

trying to find ways to tackle the causes of
illness and death. This spans many areas from

basic research, to developing new medical
devices and new ways of finding and diagnosing

illnesses. Or developing new drugs through
clinical trials in the pharmaceutical industry.

Bioengineering takes the principles of engineering
and the knowledge of biological systems and

mashes them together to solve real world problems.
This can be used to make devices to help in

medicine like artificial organs which called
biomedical engineering.

And it can be used to create biotechnology
like genetic engineering where the genetic

code of organisms is modified to tackle diseases
or for example to make crops that are resistant

to challenging growing conditions.
Synthetic biology is another branch of bioengineering
where scientists can make organisms that don't

occur in nature by making new sequences of
DNA from scratch. Or re-designing existing

systems like genetically engineering e. coli
to perform useful tasks like making drugs

or targeted delivery of drugs in the body.
It is worth pointing out that all of the subjects
on this map are very interrelated. Most of

them draw upon many of the other areas in
their research. A good example is neuroscience

the study of the nervous system and especially
the brain. It involves the anatomy of the

brain, the physiology of neurons as well as
molecular biology and biochemistry inside

the brain. So in Biology, as with most of
science, there is a lot of cross pollination

between fields.
Pharmacology studies the effects drugs have
in the body. It looks at many aspects of drugs,

how to make them, what to make them from and
their effect in different biological systems.

Pharmacology is related pharmacy which is
the science of preparing and dispensing drugs.

Pathology is the study of the causes and effects
of diseases, and the diagnosis of disease

through taking samples from the body like
blood or tissue. It also looks at how cells

adapt to injury, the healing of wounds, inflammation,
or abnormal growth of new cells like with

cancer. It is also used to investigate how
people have died using post mortem examinations.

Epidemiology looks at health and disease in
whole populations and looks at the patterns

of disease, how it is transmitted and the
effects on the overall health of a population.

Diseases are monitored all the time and if
there is an outbreak epidemiologists swoop

in to work out how it is spreading to try
mitigate the damage.

Taking a wider view, biology includes the
study of the entire natural world. Looking

at the deep past we get Palaeontology the
study of prehistoric life, looking at fossils

to work out what ancient creatures looked
liked and how they evolved. It is closely

related to evolutionary biology which looks
at how all of the life on Earth originated

from a single common ancestor and studies
how evolution led to the wide diversity of

life on Earth.
The many plants and animals that live on the
Earth today fall under the study of zoology,

marine biology and botany. These look at animals,
plants and fungi, their development, behaviour,

physiology and how to classify all of the
different species.

Ecology looks at how whole groups of animals
and plants interact with each other in an

environment: how animals compete or cooperate
with each other, and how many different kinds

of plants and animals inhabit the same environment.
This is closely related to environmental biology
which looks at how eco-systems can be thrown

off balance by humans through pollution, agriculture
or our fossil fuel emissions causing changes

to environments and the climate.
So far, the only life we have seen in the
Universe exists on Earth, but are we the only

planet in the Universe with life on it? Or
are there other planets out there with their

own strange forms of life? Astrobiology is
our attempt to answer this question, to work

out how life may arise from chemical reactions
and to probe distant planets and moons for

signs of life.
If there is one word that describes biology,
it is complexity. There is a huge amount we

still don't understand about how life works,
how it started and how it ended up with intelligent

apes like us who are able to look back and
try and work it all out. I feel like we'll

be making new biological discoveries for many
many years to come.

And if you've just discovered this video
please consider subscribing it really helps

my channel grow and get these fun explainers
out to more people. I've got many more videos

like this and I've put together a playlist
which you can watch here. And if you would

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video, check the links in the description

below. And finally if you need a present for
a youngster in your life check out my Professor

Astro Cat books which are awesome and available
in all good bookshops around the globe in

many many different languages. Okay thank
you bye!

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Map of Biology

807 Folder Collection
陳裕隆 published on July 23, 2018
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