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  • Hi. James from engVid.

  • I would like to talk about something that will help you understand English,

  • and it's two things.

  • Number one are parts of speech.

  • What are the parts of speech and how do you use them?

  • The second is called syntax, which is a very complicated word for word order.

  • Where do you put the words in a sentence?

  • In some languages they have a different word order, some languages it doesn't really matter,

  • but what my job today is, is to show you where the words go and:

  • What do they basically mean-okay-in the parts of speech?

  • As E said: "Words. Where do they go?"

  • Now, if you're new to English or even if you're an intermediate student, sometimes this causes

  • you problems. Right?

  • You've heard the terms: "preposition", "determiner", "syntax", and you're like: "Oh, it's so complicated."

  • Today's lesson will be simple.

  • You can go over this again and again.

  • It will help you understand and use English better.

  • So I'm going to start off with the most basic part of parts of speech, and I want to start

  • with the things part.

  • Things.

  • Not actions, but things.

  • I am a person.

  • My watch is a thing.

  • Okay?

  • An animal, a cat or a dog, or an apple, these are things.

  • We call these things nouns, because nouns name people - Hi, I'm James;

  • places - Toronto, Ontario; things - my watch; animals - a cat, meow; and food - an apple.

  • Okay? These are nouns.

  • Example: boy, dog, apple. Okay?

  • Nouns name these things.

  • But sometimes you don't want to keep using the same noun again and again.

  • "James ate the apple and James walked his dog as James talked to his friend, Oliver,

  • and then James..."

  • It gets what we call repetitive and boring, and it also makes the sentences go really slow.

  • And sometimes we want to use the noun in a different way.

  • So in this case we introduce what's called pronouns.

  • Pronouns can replace nouns in a sentence.

  • So now you could say something like this: "James ate the apple and he walked his dog."

  • Instead of: "James ate the apple and James walked his dog", we can use a pronoun to replace

  • it and make it simpler.

  • We still know we're talking about James.

  • Now, we talked about word order or syntax.

  • Let me explain this.

  • In order to use a pronoun first you must use the noun.

  • Okay?

  • You introduce the noun and then you can replace it with a pronoun.

  • That's why you see number one then number two.

  • You cannot just start with a pronoun.

  • If I started a sentence at the beginning: "He went to the store."

  • The very first thing you will say to me is: "Who's he?"

  • I go: "Oh, James went to the store and he bought the apples there."

  • And you go: "Oh, now I know who he is."

  • So, pronouns kind of number two because you have to actually introduce first with a noun,

  • then you can replace it with a pronoun.

  • Now, we have several types of pronouns.

  • I'm just going to go over and show you a couple of them so you get an idea.

  • Pronouns include: "I", "we", which are subject pronouns.

  • Object pronouns when we're talking about something that's not us, but something on the other

  • side that receives action, as a subject pronoun I do things.

  • I run.

  • Right?

  • We eat dinner.

  • We're talking to them.

  • Now, when we say "them", you go: "What?"

  • Well, they are receiving it and we call those object pronouns.

  • Okay?

  • So the most basic ones are subject and object pronouns.

  • One is doing something, one is receiving.

  • There are reflexive pronouns, like: "himself" where somebody is talking about themselves.

  • "He built the house himself."

  • So he's talking about him as an object, but reflecting it back to himself.

  • We call it reflexive pronoun.

  • Okay?

  • There are others, but I'm not going to get into them right now because I want to keep

  • this simple just so you know what the parts of speech are, and you can always come to

  • engVid to come and see other lessons in which we go deeply into

  • reflexive pronouns, object and subject pronouns.

  • Okay? Cool.

  • So we talked about how pronouns can replace nouns, and we're good with that.

  • Yeah?

  • So let's go to stage number three, because once you've replaced them, how do you know

  • the difference between them?

  • Apple, apple.

  • I don't know.

  • That's when we have adjectives.

  • Adjectives.

  • The word itself can be broken into two parts: "ject" and "ad".

  • But remember...

  • Do you remember when I said subject and object, and I gave you the example?

  • I said, for instance: "I" is a subject pronoun.

  • Right?

  • Subject, yeah, I'm good at this.

  • I'm going to do this really well.

  • And I said: "them" is an object pronoun.

  • Right?

  • You'll notice "ject" is in both parts.

  • When you look at an adjective, "ad" means to put on, you add, like two plus two is four,

  • four plus four is eight.

  • So an adjective you add to a pronoun or a noun to describe them.

  • So if you look here, "ject".

  • Adjectives describe nouns and pronouns.

  • Now, remember we talked about syntax?

  • Well, syntax, remember the word order?

  • Where would you find an adjective?

  • Well, in some places it's reversed.

  • If you speak Spanish, for instance, you would say: "gato negro", which in translation for

  • English is cat's black.

  • And for me who speak English or a person who speaks English, that doesn't make sense to

  • me because we say black cat.

  • So, word order can vary depending on the language you speak.

  • We usually put pronouns before...

  • Sorry, adjectives before our pronouns and our nouns so we can describe them.

  • And in two seconds I'm going to give you some ways in which we describe things, and we have

  • a word order for that.

  • Okay?

  • And I'll have to explain something on that.

  • So, where will you find an adjective?

  • Before you find your nouns or pronouns.

  • They will help you describe your subjects or objects.

  • Okay? The things that are doing something.

  • Now, we have eight types of adjectives. All right?

  • And we have a special order we put it in.

  • Now, depending on your language, this order may exist.

  • You may have a different order or you may have no order which means you can put any

  • of these things in any order you like.

  • You can put...

  • Not... Well, maybe with the exception of numbers, but the colour can come first, where it comes

  • from, it can come first.

  • Quality can come first.

  • It depends on your culture, your language, your country.

  • English, however, the order I put it in - one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight,

  • that's the order we want it in.

  • Okay?

  • If you change it, it actually gets really confusing.

  • So, what are these eight?

  • Well, why don't we take a look?

  • Quantity, it's a number.

  • Now, I put "a number", not because I said a number, but "a" refers to...

  • Or "a" refers to articles.

  • The chair, a chair.

  • Okay?

  • In this case "a" means one, so that's why I put "a number".

  • Funny guy, I know.

  • Number can be any other number; five, 10, 1,000, 1 million, a billion.

  • This usually comes first to indicate how many things we're talking about.

  • Okay? So you need a number.

  • Five chairs, okay, we're talking about five so I have to look for five chairs.

  • Not chair, yellow, five.

  • I'm like: "Is that the name, yellow five? I'm confused."

  • The next thing we talk about, quality.

  • Is it good, is it bad?

  • Is it exceptional?

  • Right? Or is it insignificant?

  • That's a big word for meaning not important.

  • Okay?

  • So we go from quality to...

  • Sorry, quantity to quality.

  • Then we talk about the size of it.

  • Right?

  • There were five big, black, cats.

  • So, five big, is it big, is it small?

  • Age.

  • How old is it?

  • Is it new?

  • Is it old?

  • Is it young?

  • All right?

  • Shape.

  • Is it round?

  • Is it a square or a triangle?

  • What's the shape of it?

  • Oblong.

  • Yeah, that's... Don't. I don't even know. I do.

  • It's long and kind