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Hi I’m John Green, this is Crash Course U.S. History
and today we’re going to cram 150 years of American history into one video.
Well, many American history classes don’t cover the colonial period at all,
because most major American history tests have like, one question about it.
Mr. Green, Mr. Green,
so this isn’t going to be on the test?
That’s awesome because I have some flirtatious notes to exchange
with Jessica Alvarez.
Yeah, Me from the Past.
So listen, would you rather do well on one test or lead a richer,
more productive life as a result of having a better understanding
of the complicated factors that led to the creation of
the greatest nation in history?
Stan, can I get a Libertage?
[Yes. Here is your Libertage]
So listen up, Me from the Past. It’s time to bask in our own greatness.
And by greatness, I mean morally dubious dominance over people
who would have been just fine without us.
[intro music]
[intro music]
[intro music]
[intro music]
[intro music]
So contrary to popular mythology,
Colonial America was more than just Jamestown and Massachusetts.
There was, for instance, New Amsterdam. [why they'll change it, I can't say…]
The tale goes the Dutch traders bought the island of Manhattan
from Lenape Indians for $24 in 1624.
That isn’t quite true, but it contains a truth. [classic History Channel Conundrum]
The Dutch traders who founded their colony were businessmen,
and New Amsterdam was above everything else a commercial venture.
This is still true in New York actually. [concrete jungle where dreams are made of]
I mean, Manhattan is all about Wall Street.
In fact, Crash Course writer and history teacher Raoul Meyer is believed to be
the last person living on the island of Manhattan
who does not work for an investment bank. [unless lying to look hip & dissenting]
the Dutch let anyone into New Amsterdam who could help them turn a profit,
including Jews and even Quakers, [gasp! clutch the pearls]
but they didn’t like Indians very much, in fact they drove them out of the colony.
But anyway,
the $24 that Lenape supposedly got for New England was $24 more
than the Dutch got when the English took over the colony in 1664 by sailing
four frigates into the harbor and asking for the colony in a threatening voice.
So New Amsterdam became New York, which was a mixed blessing.
[and the future home of Carnegie Hall]
The population doubled in the decade after the English takeover,
but English rule meant less economic freedom for women,
who under the Dutch were able to inherit property
and conduct business for themselves, [just like big girls]
And under the English, free black people lost a lot
of the jobs they had been able to hold under the Dutch.
Things were better in Pennsylvania, so much so that it was known as the
“best poor man’s country,”
which admittedly in the 17th century was a low bar to jump over.
Given by Charles II to this guy, William Penn in 1681,
Pennsylvania was a huge tract of land roundabout here.
The land included contemporary Pennsylvania, Delaware and New Jersey,
but we’ve made an editorial decision not to talk about New Jersey
here on Crash Course due to my longstanding anti-New Jersey bias.
[not clear if that extends to The Boss]
So, Penn wanted his colony to be a haven for Quakers,
because he was a Quaker, [not to be confused with the Shakers]
as you know if you’ve ever seen a container of Quaker Oats.
[that's NOT Wilfred Brimley? oh]
Quakers were a pretty tolerant bunch, [not looking at you, Mr. R.M. Nixon]
except when it came to slavery, which they opposed vehemently.
And under Penn’s leadership, the colony showed remarkable religious toleration
and also an amazing respect for Indian communities, but then,
after Penn was gone, yeah, the usual.
In 1737, Pennsylvania colonists perpetrated one of the
most famous frauds of colonial America, the Walking Purchase.
Indians agreed to cede a tract of land
bounded by the distance a man could walk in 36 hours,
but the clever governor James Logan hired a bunch of fast runners
who marked out territory much larger than the Indians anticipated.
Quakers had to resort to such tricks because they were pacifists.
[but not above being real jerkity jerks]
I should also mention that they weren’t particularly fond of loose living.
The government prevented swearing and drunkenness, for instance,
but, you know, it was still pretty great compared to the other colonies.
More than half of the male population was eligible to vote,
and Pennsylvania’s dual promise of religious freedom and cheap land
attracted a lot of German immigrants—
well I should say German-speaking immigrants.
There was, of course, not a Germany at the time
as many viewers of Crash Course World History pointed out to me.
And now let us venture South, where we will find many mosquito-borne illnesses
and somewhat less abolitionist sentiment.
In 1663, English king Charles II gave eight proprietors the right to
set up a colony just north of the Spanish- controlled Florida to serve as a buffer.
This became South Carolina, and its original settlers came from
the sugar colony of Barbados, [hello Witch of Blackbird Pond nostalgia]
which helps to explain why they were so AWESOME... at slavery.
They tried to enslave the Indians and ship them to the Caribbean,
but when that didn’t work out, they began to import African slaves.
We’re going to talk a lot more about slavery in future episodes,
but for now just bear in mind: It sucked.
[CU N Comments L8TR H8TRS]
Okay, so in the last quarter of the
17th century, the British colonies in the Americas experienced a series of crises.
Oh, it’s time for the Mystery Document?
The rules here are simple. I guess the author of the document,
I get it right, no shock. I get it wrong, shock. [not a simulation]
…we accuse Sir William Berkely as guilty of each an every one of the same, and as
one who hath traitorously attempted, violated and Injured his Majesties
interest here, by a loss of a greate part of his Colony and many of his faithfull
loyal subjects, by him betrayed and in a barbarous and shamefull manner expoased to
the Incursions and murther of the heathen, and we doe further declare these ensueing
persons in this list, to have been his wicked and pernicious councellours.
Both wicked and pernicious.
Both wicked and pernicious. Those are some terrible counselors.
Okay, so this guy clearly hated William Berkley,
who I happen to know was governor of Virginia.
Particularly upset about the colonists being incurred upon and murthered
by the heathen, that is the Native Americans.
Uh, I mean I have a guess, but I’m not brimming with confidence.
Uh, the one person I know who hated William Berkley was Nathaniel Bacon?
No shock for me and no pleasure for you, you schadenfreudic Crash Course viewers.
So, Nathaniel Bacon arrived in Virginia in 1673 and led an armed uprising against
Governor Berkeley just three years later.
And just to be clear, he was mad, not because Berkeley did a poor job
protecting colonists from Indians,
but because Berkeley wouldn’t allow them to kill more Indians and take more land.
Berkeley had already given the really good land to his cronies, those aforementioned
“wicked and pernicious councellours,” [never out of fashion, your nepotism]
leaving men like Bacon with a serious beef.
I hate myself. [justly]
Before the rebellion was quelled by the arrival of English warships,
Bacon burned Jamestown and made himself ruler of Virginia
and looted Berkeley’s supporters’ land.
Twentythree of the rebels were hanged, but not Bacon,
who died shortly after taking control from, you guessed it, dysentery.
[effyeah Oregon Trail'rs!]
Dang it Dysentery it’s called HIS-STORY not DYSENTERYS-STORY.
[pulled a muscle there, did you not?]
Bacon’s Rebellion is sometimes portrayed as an early example of
lower class artisans and would-be farmers rising up against
the corrupt, British elite, which I guess, kind of, but
the biggest effects of the rebellion were
1. A shift away from indentured servants to slaves,
and 2. A general desire by the English crown to control the colonies more.
Okay so in 1686, King James II really tried to put the hammer down
by consolidating Connecticut, Plymouth, Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
Rhode Island, New York, and East and West Jersey into one big mega-colony
called the Dominion of New England.
Its near dictatorial control of former New York Governor Edmund Andros
who proceeded to appoint his own officials and lay his own taxes
without even consulting any of the elected assemblies.
[hello there, present-day Michiganders]
Luckily, or unluckily depending on your perspective,
a major event in British history reversed this policy:
the Glorious Revolution.
Now, thankfully this isn’t Crash Course British history
or it would quickly turn into Crash Course: John-is-bored-history,
but the upshot is that Britain got a fancy, new royal family from Holland,
which sparked uprisings in the colonies, and Andros was thrown into a Boston jail
as the colonies reasserted their independence.
And these new guys imposed the English Toleration Act of 1690,
which decreed that all Protestants could worship freely.
As toleration acts go, this one wasn’t that tolerant,
I mean, it still discriminated against Jews,
but it did mark the end of the Puritan experiment.
No longer would membership in a Congregationalist church be
a requirement for voting in General Court elections –
property ownership would now be the determining factor.
And Massachusetts would now have a governor from England,
not from a company board residing inside the colony itself.
This was the context for one of the most talked about events in colonial history,
the Salem Witch trials.
A lot of ink has been expended on this incident,
and the interpretations of it are numerous and controversial,
so I’m just going to point out that when the witch trials,
which claimed the lives of 14 of the nearly 150 women (and men)
accused of witchcraft, happened in 1691,
New England as a colony had basically just failed in its religious mission.
The Tolerance Act meant that people
in Massachusetts would have to accept even Quakers as virtual equals.
So it’s not surprising that colonists would look for scapegoats,
or that their male leaders would seek to reassert their gender dominance.
Okay, to talk about colonial American economics,
let’s go to the Thought Bubble.
Most colonists were farmers or worked on farms, and they were mostly small,
unlike the giant plantations that predominated in the Caribbean.
Since New England contains relatively little in the way of tropical diseases
and was increasingly free of Native Americans,
the colonial population there skyrocketed--
so fast that families began to run out of land,
so second and third sons increasingly had to go make their way
in growing coastal cities.
We’ll talk about this more in future episodes, but for now
let’s just note the idea
of a person owning a small farm and the idea of “freedom”
are pretty closely intertwined in the early part of American history—
it’s more an amber waves of grain place than a “behold this metropolis” place.
In fact, they were richer than any other colonial elites.
Were they rich enough to dominate the Constitutional Convention?
Time will tell.
Now not everyone was a farmer, or a slave.
There were growing numbers of artisans in the colonies.
Although British colonial policy discouraged local manufacturing,
the growing population in America meant that there was certain to
be a market for locally produced goods, especially clothing and metalwork.
Remember, one of the heroes of the American Revolution,
Paul Revere, was a silversmith. [remember that West Wing episode?]
Thanks, Thought Bubble.
So that variety of jobs leads us nicely to our last topic today, Colonial society.
Although Americans like to think of themselves as classless (pun intended),
that’s not really the case.
I mean, the colonies definitely had an elite ruling class,
especially in the south,
that did what it could to perpetuate itself.
Since George Washington’s father and grandfather
were both justices of the peace, an important role in colonial times,
meaning that George Washington had deeply elite roots.
[in addition to wide hips]
So, that was the top of colonial society.
And, at the bottom was a growing number of poor people.
While it’s never good to be poor,
it was much better to be poor in the colonies than it was in England
or much of the rest of Europe,
which is why people kept indenturing themselves to get here.
America had lots of food
and there was the possibility of maybe someday getting some land
provided you didn’t die of dysentery.
Oh, and also provided you weren’t a woman. [wah wah waaaaaaah]
Married women in 18th century colonial America generally couldn’t own property,
and husbands usually willed their land to their sons
and their personal items to their daughters,
meaning that almost all landowners were male.
In the earliest days of colonization,
when everyone was needed to ensure the survival of the colonies,
women had a greater role in the economy,
although they were still expected to be wives and mothers above all else.
Male dominance was written into law and solidified in practice.
Women’s work was mostly confined to the home and,
especially for lower class women, it involved a lot of drudgery.
One woman Mary Cooper, wrote in her diary in 1769,
“I am dirty and distressed, almost wearied to death …
This day is forty years since I left my father’s house and come here,
and here have I seen little else but hard labor and sorrow.”
Aaand that’s actually a good place to end because it reminds us
that history is about much more than the lives of Kings like James II
and rebels like Nathaniel Bacon.
And while history classes, and exams, tend to focus on those kinds of men
(and they were mostly men),
the real story of history is about regular people
trying to take care of their families and not die.
The colonial era often gets skipped for its lack of large scale drama,
but those small scale dramas can be found in abundance.
[An Abundance of Small Scale Dramas, kind of a catchy title there]
Next week, we’ll go back to all that great men and dramatic events crap
when we start talking about the American Revolution.
I’ll see you then. Thanks for watching.
Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller.
Our script supervisor is Meredith Danko.
The associate producer is Danica Johnson.
The show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer,
and myself.
And our graphics team is Thought Bubble.
Last week’s phrase of the week--
oh wait, we don’t do phrase of the week anymore.
[i know, but it's for the best, pals]
If you have questions about today’s video, you can ask them in comments
where they will be answered by our team of [not] crack [cocaine] historians.
Thanks for watching Crash Course, and
Don’t Forget To Be Awesome.
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The Quakers, the Dutch, and the Ladies: Crash Course US History #4

4632 Folder Collection
雷霆小熊 published on June 24, 2013
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