Basic 3046 Folder Collection
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Professor Mark Saltzman: This is a course,
a version of which I've taught almost every year for the last
twenty years and it evolves a little bit every year.
I think I get a little bit better at it,
so hopefully you'll get some advantage from that experience.
But the idea is to try to present to you what's exciting
about Biomedical Engineering, the ways that one can take
science and mathematics and apply that to improve human
health. I'm not working alone here,
but we have three teaching fellows who are affiliated with
the course, two of which are here today.
Yen Cu is back there, Yen raise your hand higher so
everyone can see. Yen worked on the course last
year and she's the senior of the teaching fellows that are
working on the course this year. Serge Kobsa is in the back and
he'll be the second teaching fellow.
I should mention that Yen is a PhD student in Biomedical
Engineering and Serge is an M.D./PhD student who's getting
his PhD in Biomedical Engineering.
The third teaching fellow couldn't make it today,
his name is Michael Look and I'll introduce him to you when
he's available. This is the goal for my
first lecture today, to try to answer these
questions. You might have already noticed
that I'm using the classes V2 server so the syllabus is there,
I'm going to go over the syllabus a little bit later,
but the syllabus is available online.
The first reading is available online and I'll talk more about
the readings when I get to that portion of the lecture here.
I'm going to post PowerPoints for all the lectures,
hopefully at least the day before the lecture takes place,
so I posted this last night. Some students find that they
benefit from printing out the PowerPoints and they can just
take their notes along with the slides as I go and that's one
way to do it, but feel free to do it whatever
way works for you, but those should be available.
The questions I want to try to answer today are what is
Biomedical Engineering? So why would you be interested
in spending a semester learning about this subject?
I'll talk about who will benefit from the course and a
little bit about sort of the detailed subject matter that
we'll cover in the course of this semester.
To answer the question what is Biomedical Engineering,
we're going to spend time on that today and we'll spend time
on Thursday, and I want to approach it from
a couple of different angles. One is by just showing you
a series of pictures which you might recognize and talk about
why this is an example of Biomedical Engineering.
This is one picture that probably you all know what it is
when you see it, it's a familiar looking image.
It's something that probably we all have some personal
experience with, right?
This is a chest x-ray that would be taken in your doctor's
office, for example, or a radiologist's office.
And it is a good example of Biomedical Engineering and that
it takes a physical principle, that is how do x-rays interact
with the tissues of your body, and it uses that physics,
that physical principle to develop a picture of what's
inside your body, so to look inside and see
things that you couldn't see without this device.
And you'll recognize some of the parts of the image,
you can see the ribcage here, the bones, you can see the
heart is this large bright object down here.
If your - have good eyesight from the distance that you're at
you can see the vessels leading out of the heart and into the
lungs, and the lungs are these darker
spaces within the ribcage. Physicians over the years
of having this instrument have learned how to be very
sophisticated about looking at these pictures and diagnosing
when something is wrong inside the chest,
for example. So this is an example of
Biomedical Engineering, one that is well integrated
into our society to the point that we've probably all got a
picture like this somewhere in our past,
and where we understand the physical principles that allow
us to use it. We've gotten,
over the last two decades in particular, very sophisticated
about taking pictures inside the body allowing doctors to look
inside the body and predict things about our internal
physiology that they couldn't predict just by looking at us or
putting their hands on us. This image on the top here is
another example of an imaging technique, this is a Positron
Emission Tomograph, or PET image,
and it's taken by using radionuclides and injecting them
into you, so radioactive chemicals that
interact with tissues in your body in a specific way and you
can where those radioactive chemicals go.
It allows us to look not just at the anatomy of what's going
on inside your body like an x-ray does,
but to look at the chemistry, the biochemistry of what's
happening inside a particular organ or tissue in your body.
In this case, these are pictures of the brain
and this has been an exceptionally important
technique in understanding how molecules like neurotransmitters
affect disease and how they change in certain disease states
in people, and we'll talk about this as
another example of Biomedical Engineering, this advanced
method is for imaging inside the body.
Well this third picture you can't probably see too much
about but you probably recognize what it is, right?
Where was this picture taken? What kind of a space was it
taken in?
Student: [inaudible]Professor
Mark Saltzman: Somebody said OR or
operating room and that's right, this is a picture in an
operating room, and operating rooms if you went
into any operating room around the country you would see lots
of examples of instruments that are used to help surgeons,
anesthesiologists to keep the patient alive and healthy during
the course of a surgery. This particular one down
here, this portion here is a heart/lung machine and this is a
machine that can take over the function of a patient's heart
and lungs during the period when they're undergoing open heart
surgery, for example.
If they're having a coronary artery bypass or they're having
a heart transplant, then there's some period at
which their normal heart - their heart is stopped and this
machine assumes the functions of their heart.
And this is, I think, an obvious example of
Biomedical Engineering, building a machine that can
replace the function of one of your organs even temporarily,
for example, during an operation.
This is another familiar picture, I purposely picked one
that looked sort of old fashioned compared to the usual
way you see this, which might be on the nightly
news. You see a bleep going across
the screen to indicate that they've got their finger on the
pulse of what's happening, or you see it in TV shows like
ER. You see these images on
computer screens all the time; it's an example of an EKG or
ECG, an electrocardiograph. It's a machine that also looks
inside your body, but looks inside in a different
kind of way. Rather than by forming an image
or a picture you put electrodes on the surface of the body and
measure the electrical potential as a function of position on the
body. It turns out the electrical
potential or electricity that you can measure on the surface
of the body reflects things that are happening deeper inside like
the beating of your heart. If you put the electrodes in
the right position and you measure in the right way you can
detect the electrical activity of the heart and record it on a
strip recorder like this one shown here,
or display it on a computer. So this is another example of
Biomedical Engineering where you can look at the function of a
heart in a living person and a physician who is experienced at
looking at these, and a machine that works well,
with those two things you can diagnose a lot of things that
are happening inside of a heart and we'll talk about that about
halfway through the course. This picture might be less
familiar to you but you probably all know that we have developed
over the last 100 years or so the ability to take cells out of
a person, or cells out of an animal,
and keep those isolated cells alive in culture for extended
periods of time: this technology is called cell
culture technology. We're going to spend quite of
bit of time talking about it during the third week of the
course. By taking cells from the skin,
for example, or cells from your blood or
cells from the bone marrow and keeping them alive in culture,
we've been able to study how human cells work and learn a lot
about the functioning of human organism.
We've also learned how to not only keep cells alive,
but in certain cases make them replicate outside the body,
so maybe you could take a few skin cells and keep them in
culture in the right way and replicate them so that you get
many millions of skin cells after several weeks or so.
Now one of the new technologies that's evolving,
that we're going to talk about in the last half of the course,
is taking cells that have been propagated in this way outside
the body and encouraging them to form new tissues.
This is one example of that: this is actually artificial
skin. It's in this Petri dish.
Here is a thin membrane, it's a polymer scaffold,
and on that polymer scaffold scientists have placed some skin
cells and they've allowed it to grow.
And if you maintained it in the right way, this polymer scaffold
together with the skin cells will grow into skin.
And you can use this tissue engineered skin to treat a
patient who's had severe burns, for example,
or a diabetic who's developed ulcers that won't heal.
So this is an example of a technology that's just emerging
now, it's certainly going to impact you in your lifetime and
we'll talk about how it works and what the current
state-of-the-art is there. This device held here is
really made of mainly plastic and a little bit of metal.
It's a fully implantable artificial heart,
and it was introduced about seven or eight years ago now.
It was implanted into the first patient, a gentleman in
Kentucky, and he stayed alive for a period of time with this
device replacing his heart. Development of an artificial
heart, again another example of Biomedical Engineering,
is something that people have been trying to accomplish for
decades now, and this is the closest that we've come and
there are many advantages of this particular artificial
heart. And it's important innovation
in several different ways and we're going to talk about this
whole science of building artificial organs,
devices that are made out of totally synthetic components to
replace the function of your natural organs,
and the artificial heart is a good example of that.
This picture on the bottom here is really just a series of
colored dots. Some are yellow,
some are red, and some are green - does
anybody know what this is? Have you seen pictures like
this? It's an example of a technology
called a gene chip that allows you to, on each one of these
spots there is DNA for example, that's specific for a
particular gene in your genome, in the human genome for
example. By incubating a small sample of
fluid from a patient on a gene chip like this,
where every one of these dots represents a different gene,
you can see by looking at the pattern of colors on this chip
which genes are being expressed and which genes are not being
expressed in that particular individual.
So it lets you do a profile of not just the genes that you
possess, for example, but what genes are actually
being used to make proteins in the cells that surround the
fluid where this was collected. So this has been a remarkable
innovation. It's another example of
Biomedical Engineering technology that allows us to
look at what's happening inside an individual,
a patient, in a totally different way than we were
before. By looking to see not just what
genes you carry but what genes are being used at particular
times in your life. This is mainly a research tool
now, but there's lots of reasons to believe that this is going to
change the way that physicians practice medicine by allowing
them to diagnose or predict what's going to happen to you in
ways that they can't currently. And so we'll talk about
technologies like this, where they're at,
what the scientific basis of it is, and how they might be
useful. This is an airplane,
what does that have to do with Biomedical Engineering?
Well you could stretch it and say that an example of
engineering to improve human health is getting them from one
place to another, but that would be more of a
stretch than I'm going to make. But it turns out that
technologies like airplanes, which were developed in the
last century, have become integral parts of
medicine. For example,
you all know that the only treatment for some diseases is
to get an organ transplant: a kidney transplant,
or a liver transplant is the only life extending intervention
that can be done for some kinds of diseases.
Transplants require donors, and the donor organ is usually
not at the same physical location that the recipient is,
and so jets like this one have become very important in
connecting donors to recipients. A team of surgeons is working
to harvest an organ at one site while another team of surgeons
is working to prepare the recipient at another site,
and the organ is flown there. Now why does that happen?
Because you have to get the organ from one place to another
fast, right? The organ has to get from one
place to another very rapidly and this is the fastest way to
do it. Well what if we could develop
ways using engineering techniques to extend the life of
an organ, so it didn't have to get it where it went so quickly?
Then that would open up lots of more possibilities for organ
transplantation than are known now.
What if we could figure out ways to avoid organ
transplantation entirely? What if we could just take a
few cells from that donor organ, ship them to the site,
grow a new organ at the site and then implant it there?
These are examples of Biomedical Engineering of the
future that expand on what we currently use,
which involves to no small extent, technology like this.
I would guess that probably 30% to 50% of you do this everyday,
you put a piece of plastic, a synthetic piece of plastic
into your eye to improve your vision.
Contact lens technology has changed dramatically from the
time that I was born to the time that you were born,
and the contact lenses you use today are much different than
the ones that would have been used 30 years ago.
This is Biomedical Engineering as well.
Engineers who are developing new materials,
materials that can be, if you think about it,
there's not very many things that you would want to put in
your eye and that you would feel comfortable putting into your
eye, so this is a very safe,
a very inert material. What gives it those properties?
What makes it so safe that it can be put in one of the most
sensitive places in your body, in contact with your eye?
Why do you have confidence putting it in contact with one
of the most important organs of your body?
Because you trust biomedical engineers to have done a good
job in designing these things and we'll talk about how
biomaterials are designed and tested,
and what makes a material, the properties of a material
that you could use as a contact lens,
what are the properties that it needs to have.
This is an example of an artificial hip.
We've learned a lot about the mechanics of how humans work as
organisms over the last 100 years or so,
how we work as sort of physical objects that have to obey the
laws of physics that you know about.
We live in a gravitational field and that it affects our
day to day life, and if you have hip pain or a
hip that's diseased in some way, and you can't stand up against
that gravitational field in the same way, that severely limits
what you can do in the world. So biomedical engineers have
been working for many years on how to design replacement parts
for joints like the hip: the artificial hip is the most
well developed of those. We'll talk about this in some
detail. You can imagine that there are
many requirements that a device like this has to meet in order
for it to be a good artificial hip and we'll talk about those
and how the design of these has changed over the years and what
we can expect in the future. Lastly, up here,
is a picture of a much smaller device, this is actually an
artificial heart valve that is made of plastics and metal and
can replace the valve inside your heart.
Valvular disease is not uncommon in the world;
we'll talk about that a little bit.
We'll talk about how your normal valves function inside
your heart and how your heart couldn't work in the way that it
did if it didn't have valves that were doing a very complex
operation many, many times a day.
And then we'll talk about how you can build something to
replace a complicated small part in the body like that.
Well let's take a step back for a minute;
that's one way of looking at Biomedical Engineering,
by looking at sort of the things that you know about that
have been the result of the work of biomedical engineers and talk
more generally. But what is engineering?
What do engineers do? What makes engineering
different than other fields of study?
What makes it unique so that we have a school of engineering at
Yale that's separate from science and the humanities?
Any thoughts? Student:
It's more hands-onProfessor Mark
Saltzman: It's much more hands-on.
You're actually in there doing things.
Many of the things I showed you were things that were built from
parts, that's a good description.
What makes it different from science?
Science can be hands-on, you might be down at the lake
picking up algae and studying them or something,
that would be hands-on. But what's different - what
would make you an engineer? Student:
[inaudible]Professor Mark Saltzman:
You design. Scientists observe and try to
describe and engineers try to design.
They take those descriptions and the scientist that is known
and they try to design new things,
and so if you look at a dictionary it has words like
this, that you're designing things or another way to say
that is that you're trying to apply science,
you're looking at applications. We're trying to take scientific
information and make something new.
The other thing about it is that you could make lots of
things that are new but generally you think of engineers
as making things that are not just new but they're useful,
that they do something that needs to be done,
and that they do something that improves life,
the quality of life of people. So here is a brief and very
biased history of engineering. It's short.
Engineering became a discipline in about the middle of the
1800s. Lots of universities started
teaching engineering as a discipline including Yale.
In 1852, around that time, this might have been the first
course that was offered in engineering in the country:
it was taught at Yale in civil engineering in 1852,
and even Yale students don't know this;
what a long, distinguished history of
engineering that their own institution has.
In fact, the first PhD degree in engineering was awarded to a
fellow named J. Willard Gibbs at Yale in 1863
for a thesis he did on how gears work or something,
I forget exactly what the details are, but have you heard
of Gibbs? Is it a name that rings a bell?
Where did you hear about Gibbs from?
Student: [inaudible]Professor
Mark Saltzman: Sorry?Student:
[inaudible]Professor Mark Saltzman:
G, Gibbs free energy,
that annoying concept that you had to try to master in
chemistry at some point, but Gibbs is really the father
of modern physical chemistry and was one of the most famous
scientists of the nineteenth century and got the first PhD in
engineering here at Yale. Then from these beginnings,
engineers transformed life in the twentieth century:
a lot of things started in the twentieth century and became
common place. Things like electricity,
having electricity delivered to your home, so you had to have
ways to generate electricity and to carry it from point to point
and it was engineers that did that.
Built bridges and roads and automobiles, so we can get from
one place to another relatively quickly because of that.
Because there are airplanes that were also developed by
engineers in that century. We designed a lot of new
materials that could be used to build things that couldn't have
been done otherwise. Things like steel and polymers,
or plastics, and ceramics,
and of course computers which has progressed remarkably due to
the work of engineers in your lifetime,
until now you can carry around a cell phone,
which would have been unthinkable even 30 years ago.
Engineers in the twentieth century have transformed our
society. One of the other things
that happened during the twentieth century is that human
life expectancy increased dramatically,
people started living a lot longer.
What I plot on this graph here is as a function time,
years, dates, life expectancy as a function
of time. What you'll see here is that
about - for the period before sort of 1700 or so,
human life expectancy was less than 40 years of age,
so that means a person that was born in that year could expect
to live on average about 40 years: that was the expected
life span. The expected life spans
increased dramatically in the last couple of hundred years
until now, for people that were born when
you were born you can expect to live to be 80 years old,
a doubling in life span, fairly dramatic.
So what's responsible for that?
Why are people living longer than they did just a few hundred
years ago? Well there's a clue here on the
slide. I indicated a couple of points
here where if we looked in the 1665 in London you could ask the
question - another way to ask the question why are people
living so long is to ask the question,
why do people die? In 1665,93% of the people that
died in that year died of infectious diseases.
In contrast, if you look at a U.S.
city, ten years ago in 1997 for example, then people still died
but they didn't die predominantly from infectious
diseases. They died from other things:
only 4% died from infectious diseases.
So one of the reasons there is a huge increase in life span
is because people aren't dying of things that they would have
in prior years. Why the change in infectious
diseases? Why did I focus on that one?
What makes it so much better to be alive now in terms of your
likelihood to die of an infectious disease than it did
in London in 1665? Student:
[inaudible]Professor Mark Saltzman:
Yes, but what specifically?
Student: [inaudible]Professor
Mark Saltzman: Drugs like antibiotics,
Penicillin, Erythromycin, again something else you
probably all had experience with and you think well that's not
Biomedical Engineering that's science,
that's somebody discovering a molecule that kills
microorganisms. That's true,
it is science, but in order for that to go
from being a science that works in a laboratory or in one
hospital to being Penicillin which could be used all over the
world, you've got to be able to make
it in tremendously large quantities and that's the work
of biomedical engineers, making Penicillin in the kinds
of quantities that you need so that a dose could be available
for everyone in the world if they got infected,
and to make it not just in abundance but make it cheaply
enough that everyone could afford it.
So if you can make 100 tons of the drug but it costs $100,000 a
gram that might not be a useful drug because nobody could afford
to use it. So it's the work of biomedical
engineers, really, to take these innovations in
science like drugs and make them useful,
make them so that everybody can take advantage of it.
You also mentioned vaccines and we're going to talk a lot in
the middle part of the course about vaccines and the
engineering of immunity. How do you engineer what
happens in our immune system in order to protect us from
diseases? That's another example of an
area where biomedical engineers have made tremendous
contributions. So just to go a little bit
further with that point, if you looked at the causes of
death in London in 1665 here's a list that I got from a source
that was written at that time, and I don't even understand
what some of these things are, but the ones in green are
infectious diseases, they're infectious causes of
disease. Spotted fever in purples for
example, which we call measles, was a significant cause of
death as was the plague, which we don't have anymore,
thank goodness. But people died typically of
either infectious diseases or they died during childbirth,
or they might have died at old age which would have been 50 or
so at that time. In contrast today,
because we have antibiotics and we have vaccines,
people don't die of infectious diseases as often.
They live much longer lives and they live to die of something
else and the leading causes of death currently haven't changed
very much since 1997 when this data was published:
they die of heart disease and cancer primarily.
Those are the number one and two causes of death.
We're going to talk a lot about how one can use the technology
that we have now to treat these kinds of diseases like cancer
and heart disease. But why do you think these are
the number one and two now? How come these have risen above
infectious diseases over the last several hundred years?
Why is cancer one of the leading killers in the U.S.
now but wasn't even on the charts in 1665?
Student: [inaudible]Professor
Mark Saltzman: So it could be that -
what's your name? Student:
JustinProfessor Mark Saltzman: So Justin said it
could be new things that are around and you're exposed to
stuff we weren't exposed to before and that's true.
Our environment has changed, the world has become
industrialized. We're exposed to things that
might cause cancer where weren't exposed to them before and so
that might be a reason. Student:
they might not know what it was?Professor Mark
Saltzman: In 1665, they weren't diagnosing cancer.
It was easy to tell if somebody had an infectious disease but
you might not have known that they had cancer at that time and
they just died. We didn't have the same methods
of diagnosis that we do now, so maybe it was just not
diagnosed then. Student:
[inaudible]Professor Mark Saltzman:
People are living longer and so now they have more
opportunity to get cancer, right?
The longer you live the more opportunity you have to acquire
a disease like cancer, which often is an accumulation
of defects that occur over a long period of time.
So we're going to talk about cancer.
For example, how cancer diagnosis has
improved, what are some of the causes of cancer in the
environment around us and how can we protect ourselves from
it, and we'll talk about treatments
for it as well. Cardiovascular disease,
why is cardiovascular disease on the top?
Student: [inaudible]Professor
Mark Saltzman: Obesity or generally our
diets are different than they were in 1665.
We eat different kinds of things and many people think
that that's what has contributed to much more heart disease.
But it could also be that it wasn't as easily diagnosed then.
So people were dying of old age and that was really heart
disease that was killing them they just didn't know,
so it's multi-factorial and we'll talk about that.
I just wanted to show you this last graph,
or this last set of statistics to go from causes of death in
the U.S. to causes of death in the
world, to illustrate that what happens in the world around us
in the U.S. isn't necessarily the same as
what happens in other places around the world.
In other places, infectious disease is a much
bigger part of their life and a much greater risk of death from
infectious diseases and parasitic diseases if you live
in places other than the U.S. or Western Europe, for example.
So the problem of infectious disease prevention and treatment
isn't solved yet, you know this,
right? So there's plenty of room to
still innovate in that way, to develop new methods that
could protect against diseases like AIDS or diseases like
malaria that we don't have problems with here but they do
in many parts of the world, and so we'll talk about that.
I mentioned the book for the course and the book is a
book that I've written. It's not published yet and so
I'm going to put chapters from the book that are in fairly
final form, and I think you'll find them
easy to read, but you don't have to buy it.
It's going to be posted on the Internet and I'll post chapters
sort of in advance of the reading assignments.
If you looked on the classes server you saw Chapter 1,
and Chapter 1 describes some of the sort or organization of
Biomedical Engineering into sub-disciplines,
which I've listed here. So we're going to talk
about thinking about the body as a system, as a system that can
be understood the same way a motor could be understood or a
computer that could be understood.
That study is Systems Physiology and that's an
important subdivision of Biomedical Engineering.
We'll talk about instrumentation a little bit and
I've mentioned this, things like the EKG machine and
the heart/lung machine are instruments that are designed to
either keep patients alive or to allow you to monitor their
function over time. We'll talk about imaging which
I mentioned, biomechanics or the study of humans as mechanical
objects. We'll talk about a field which
is growing now called biomolecular engineering and
that is the design of biomaterials or new materials
that can be implanted in the body,
it's new ways of drug delivery. It's this whole field of tissue
engineering that I mentioned earlier.
We'll talk about artificial organs and we'll talk about
systems biology or thinking about how to acquire information
for things like gene chips and use that information to
understand what's happening in a complex organism like you.
Now, I've highlighted three of these in blue here,
imaging, mechanics, and biomolecular engineering
because if you go on to study Biomedical Engineering here at
Yale anyway, these are the things that you
might pick to emphasize on. These are the things that we do
best and where we have advanced course work available in these
three categories and so I'm going to emphasize these three
but we'll talk about all of these subjects as we go through
the course. The syllabus is posted online.
I've just copied it here so you could take a look at it.
Week 1 we're trying to talk about this question,
what is Biomedical Engineering. There are some chapters here
for readings: Chapters 1,2,
and 4. I've only posted Chapter 1,
which basically reviews the things I've talked about today.
Chapters 2 and 4 are really reviews of things that you
probably already know something about, so they're reviews of
basic chemistry. So chemical concepts that are
important for us to all understand as we move forward
and review of proteins and biochemistry,
basically. So I'm going to post those
online and we're not going to talk about them directly in the
lectures but they're there as a resource,
so if you read about something like pH and you've forgotten
what pH is, you can go back to Chapter 2 which is posted and
you can read about pH and I try to take you through sort of what
you need to know in order to understand the rest of the
course material. And if you've forgotten about
proteins and what their structure is like,
you can go to Chapter 4 and read sort of a brief review of
protein biochemistry. In the section this week,
I'll talk about the section meetings in just a moment,
but there's no required section meeting this week.
During the section times I'll be available if you feel like
you want to read Chapters 2 and 4 and then come and ask
questions, sort of a tutorial on these
topics of chemistry and biochemistry,
then I'll be available to talk about that during that time.
We'll start with Week 2 talking about Genetic Engineering;
what's DNA, how can it be manipulated, how is our ability
to manipulate DNA led to things like gene therapy which can now
be in people. And we'll talk about that and
that's what Chapter 3 is about. We'll talk about cell culture
engineering during Week 4, how do you maintain cells in
culture, what are the limits of this.
How can you use cultured cells to do things,
and how do engineers build new things out of cultured cells is
going to be a subject we talk about throughout the rest of the
course and the chapter is listed here.
So I think that's enough, you can follow along with the
syllabus and see sort of what the topics are each week,
what the reading assignment is to do before the lecture in
order to get the most out of the lecture.
Now, each week we have a section meeting,
required section, they're all - all the sections
meet on Thursday afternoon and the idea of the section is to
amplify on some subject we've talked about during the week.
We do this in the undergraduate Biomedical Engineering
laboratory in the Malone Building so that we can do
demonstrations and sort of hands on projects to really get a
little bit deeper into the subject that we're considering.
So in the first week we run a section called from strawberries
to gene therapy where we talk about DNA,
extract DNA, you can play with the DNA of an
organism and we can think about how to use DNA for other
purposes. In Week 3 you'll actually
do some cell culture in the laboratory and look at cultured
cells and learn how to manipulate,
do some manipulations on cells and culture, and so on
throughout the weeks. We have a one hour section
that's designed to give you some more detailed experience,
some hands on experience with some of the topics we're talking
about. There are no lab reports that
are due. There sometimes will be
homework assignments which sort of build on what we've done
during the section but it's not a lab in that sense that it's a
long experience in the afternoon or that requires any detailed
reports. But it is required and I think
an important part of the course. There's a mid-term exam halfway
through and a final exam at the end, and there's a term paper
which is due near the end of the course.
So this just - just saying a little bit more about the
sections, there's three sections,
we have online discussion section sign up,
has anybody tried to do that yet?
Just so they know that it's available?
So it was supposed to be available from day one,
you can sign up for a section that fits your schedule and this
is sort of the list of things that we'll go through in the
section meetings. Grading - 30% of the grade
is for the mid-term, 30% for the final,
and the final is not cumulative,
the final covers only things for the last half of the course,
so it's really just like a - covers half the course but it's
given during the final exam period.
There's a term paper which I'll talk more about as the weeks go
on that's also worth 30% of the grade.
You'll have weekly - approximately weekly homework
assignments that account for 10% of your grade,
but they have an impact beyond the 10% because if you can do
the homework and you understand the homework,
you're going to have no problem with the exams.
I encourage you to spend more time than the weighting would
suggest. So how do you get an "A" in
the course? It's very simple.
You do the reading before class, you come to class,
and you do the homework. And I guarantee you if you do
those three things throughout the course that you'll do well
in the course and I've said this almost every time I've given the
course and nobody has ever told me that I'm wrong.
And so do these three things, if you don't get an "A" than
you can come back and talk to me about it later.
The assignment for the next class is to do Problem 2 of
Chapter 1, which I've repeated right here,
and that's to think beyond what I've talked about in terms of
what is Biomedical Engineering. To think a little bit more
about Biomedical Engineering products that you've encountered
in your life, or that you have some
experience with, and then to think beyond what
information I've given you in the chapter or in this lecture
to say what products of biomedical engineering do you
expect to become routine in the next 50 years.
So spend ten or 15 minutes thinking about this and write it
down and bring your responses to class in the next period and
we'll talk about that. So at the end of this first
lecture where I've gone some way in trying to tell you what
Biomedical Engineering is about, I thought I would try to relate
it in a different sort of way. And you've heard this poem,
London Bridge is Falling Down, everybody's heard this poem?
You played the game; I don't know if there's a
videogame now, if people play games like this
where London Bridge is Falling Down.
This is a picture of London Bridge, it's an interesting
bridge which is important in the history of London.
Bridges have really changed our society and allowed us to get
from one place to another in ways that we couldn't have
gotten to easily before. One of the interesting things
about London Bridge is that it's now no longer in London,
it's in Arizona, you can see a palm tree here.
When they reconstructed London Bridge they moved the old London
Bridge to Arizona; some guy bought it.
That must be an interesting story, but I just have it here,
and I think the poem tells you something about engineering if
you go through it - and the problems of engineering.In
bridge building we're well advanced in understanding what
are the problems with building bridges and how do we overcome
them? For example,
one thing that could happen is that you build it up with wood
and clay, you pick the wrong material for
a bridge, and it will not stand up to the forces of nature.
It will wash away and so you got to pick the right materials
in order to build a bridge. So you pick a better material
like iron and steel, that makes a better bridge,
we know that now because we have experience with bridges,
but still your bridge might fail.
It might fail for a different reason.
It might bend and bow, that is it's not the forces of
nature like the movement of the river that's knocking the bridge
down, but it's just the failure of
these materials over time, that they don't last as long as
they might. So you build it with a material
like silver and gold, and then you encounter the
problems of society that your bridge might get stolen because
somebody thinks they have a better use for silver and gold
than your bridge. I would say that in
Biomedical Engineering, largely, we're still at the
stage where we're trying to understand how things work and
how they fail, and what materials are the
right ones. We're maybe where civil
engineering and bridge building was 100 years ago.
And that makes it for me a very exciting time to study this
because the problems aren't solved in the way that bridge
building is largely a solved problem now.
Problems like the artificial heart are still unsolved,
there's still room for innovation,
still room to learn from what hasn't worked before,
to learn from science, and to design something better.
So one of my purposes of this course is to get you,
whether you study Biomedical Engineering after this or not,
excited about the subject so that you start thinking about
how you could innovate in this area where lots of problems are
still left to solve, so I'll see you on Thursday
hopefully.
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1. What Is Biomedical Engineering?

3046 Folder Collection
李元凱 published on June 22, 2013
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