Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles In this short video we'll be discussing relative clauses, also known as adjective clauses. Before we start discussing relative clauses, let's do a quick review by answering these four questions. The first type of relative clause we'll be discussing is the subject relative clause. Let's take a look at these two sentences here. "SMC is the community college." "It is located close to UCLA". So, we have two independent clauses "SMC is a community college" and a second independent clause "It is located close to UCLA". What you need to focus your attention on is "the community college" which is in bold and "it". "It" is a pronoun that refers to "the community college". When we create a subject relative clause, we combine these two independent clauses ,and we have "SMC is a community college that is located close to UCLA". So, this relative clause describes the community college. Here's another quick example. "Students are very intelligent." "They attend SMC." So, we have "students" as the subject in the first sentence, and "they" as a subject pronoun in the second sentence. When we combine them, we have the sentence, "Students who attend SMC are very intelligent." So, the relative clause describes the students. When we write relative clauses or subject relative clauses we use the relative pronouns "who", "which", and "that" to connect the two clauses. We use "who" for people, "which" for things, animals, places, and ideas, and "that" we also use for people and things, animals, places and ideas. So, let's take a look at a couple of practice problems. Here again we have two sentences. "The students are hardworking." "They are learning English." Now we want the first sentence to be the independent clause, and we want the second sentence to become the relative clause, the clause that describes some noun in the first sentence. So, we have "the students" is the subject in the first sentence, and "they" is the subject pronoun in the second sentence. So, what we're going to do to combine these two sentences is we're going to move this whole second clause right after the noun we're going to describe which is "students". So, if you see we have "The students they are learning English are hard working", but we can't have two subjects in a row so we replace the pronoun or the subject of the second sentence with a relative pronoun and we get "The students" remember these are people so "WHO are learning English are hardworking." Let's look at a second example. "The grammar book belongs to the instructor." "It is on the desk." So, which subject in the first sentence is the same as the subject in the second sentence? We look here, and we have "the grammar book", that's the subject of the first sentence, "belongs to the instructor." "It is on the desk." So, "It" refers to "the grammar book". We're going to combine the sentences again and we get "The grammar book which is on the desk belongs to the instructor." So, this whole second clause became the relative clause, and we put it right after the noun we're trying to describe, which is the grammar book. Here's another example. "She lives in the city." "It is located next to Santa Monica." So, in the first sentence we have the noun "the city" and in the second sentence we have the pronoun "it." The "it" refers to "the city" so we combine these two sentences, and we get "She lives in the city which is located next to Santa Monica." We use with the relative pronoun "which" because "city" is a thing not a person.