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• In this lesson I’m going to talk a little more about consonant intervals, which are thirds and sixths.

• So the way I’m going to do that is to count the half steps that are within that third.

• I’m going to go to the keyboard, and I’m going to look at this third I created.

• It was a C and an E. But now what I need to do is count.

• There’s one half step, two, three, and four.

• So there were four half steps in that third.

• But let’s look at a different third and see how many half steps we get, like this one.

• E, F, G, one, two, three, so it’s another third.

• But this one, were going to count one half step, two, three.

• So this one only has three half steps. Here’s four, and here’s three.

• When you have four half steps, you want to say that your third is major.

• Those are all four half steps, all major thirds. And then minor thirds.

• They just sound a little bit different but theyre all

• in the basic same category of consonant intervals and thirds.

• So were going to look back up on the board now.

• I’m going to add this information. I’m adding a capital M,

• and that’s how I write major.

• So in general, I’m going to use this abbreviation.

• And when I write minor, it gets kind of confusing with of all the M’s,

• so I would just write lowercase, and I put this line above it, like that.

• That’s my abbreviation for minor, and that’s what I’ll do throughout.

• Then the question is, what do you do if you want to notate one of these two different types of thirds?

• So let’s try that. Again, it really helps to have

• a picture of a piano keyboard in your mind.

• So were going to try doingthis is my minor third, and I’m going to put up.

• I want to write a minor third above that.

• So now I’ve got two pieces of information to deal with.

• I have the number, and then I have this quality right here.

• So I’m just going to count three, and I know it’s up,

• so one, two, three, so I know it has to be some kind of a B.

• I don’t know what the accidental is yet though.

• Then what I want to do is imagine the keyboard in my mind or I can just play it.

• I’m going to play three half steps up from that G on the piano.

• So there’s my G, and this would just be a plain old B.

• One half step, two half steps, so three half steps is actually right there.

• When I go back to the board, I need to make sure I put a flat in front of this.

• Now the question would be, we know a little about enharmonic equivalence, B flat is actually the same as A sharp.

• The problem with this is, if I’m actually trying to write a minor third,

• G, A, this is actually going to be some kind of a second.

• So it’s actually not going to be what I want right here.

• You do have to be careful not to change your letter names all around.

• And well just do one more of those.

• Let’s say that you do a bass clef, and you want to try a major third,

• I’m going to start here with a B flat, and I want to do a major third down.

• Here’s my B flat right here, and I go down one half step, one, two, three, four.

• If I want a major third, I’m going to have to flat that G to get that major third.

• You can think about both pieces of those information when you write your intervals.

• Now weve talked about thirds, but consonant intervals also include sixths.

• I’m going to show you a quicker way than counting intervals to get to your sixths.

• Were going to start with this third, B up to D.

• What I’m going to do to invert it is take one of those two pitches,

• and I’m going to wrap it around the other one and change the octave.

• It needs to cross over where the other note is.

• Now I’m going to take this away.

• What I did was I just inverted my third and it turned into something else.

• I’m going to go back to that same one that I had originally, the same third.

• I’m just going to invert it the other direction because now I’m going to keep this the same

• and I’m going to move this one around.

• I’m going to go like that, bring it up the octave,

• and I’ll get rid of this one, and I have just inverted that third again.

• So it was B to D before, and it’s really just those same notes,

• theyre just in different places. So that’s inversion.

• Let’s see why that’s important. If we do this, were going to get, in both cases, sixths.

• Before, we had a minor third, B up to D, so let’s see what we end up getting with this sixth.

• This one, we know it’s a sixth, so we had a minor third.

• I’m going to show you what happens on the keyboard here.

• I have a really easy way of figuring out if it’s a major or minor sixth.

• What I do, is I go back to my third, and I was pretty sure this was a minor third,

• but I want to make sure. One, two, three half steps.

• Well, the sixth is a major sixth.

• We know that without even needing to count.

• So if we have major, it’s going to become minor.

• Then there was something else that we can summarize up here too.

• This of course is also the opposite way.

• If we go down here and look at that number, we had a third and it turned into a sixth.

• So major becomes minor, and minor becomes major

• when you invert an interval, and the numbers add up to nine.

• There’s still one more piece of information, that is the half steps.

• Maybe the half steps add up to something too, and in fact they do.

• So if you have four half steps in your major third, and then you invert it

• twelve minus four is eight. So that other interval is going to have eight half steps.

• If you have an interval with 6 half steps,

• it’s going to invert and become an interval that also has 6 half steps.

• Half steps always add up to twelve, the numbers add up to nine, and then these two are going to flip.

• Going back to this major third, what happens if we have the same C to E,

• those same two letter names, and we add a little bit of an expansion in there?

• We could do that, for example, by sharping the E.

• So when we do this, we now actually have more than four intervals.

• What happens if it shrinks?

• Here we have a minor third, what happens if we compress it even more?

• I’ll compress it, I’m just going to choose to do this by sharping the C.

• I’ve just shrunk it down, so now if this is three half steps,

• what I have here is only two half steps, and that’s diminished.

• There’s a little circle, and that’s your abbreviation for that.

• one more piece to add to that now that we have diminished and augmented here,

• if you invert a diminished interval, youre going to get an augmented interval,

• and well look at that on the piano.

• Here’s my C to E, and we talk about augmenting that by

• raising the E so it looks just like an F on the piano.

• That’s you introduction to consonant intervals

In this lesson I’m going to talk a little more about consonant intervals, which are thirds and sixths.

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Music 101: Consonant Intervals

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songwen8778 posted on 2016/07/31
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