B1 Intermediate UK 5710 Folder Collection
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Sophie: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Sophie.
Neil: And I'm Neil. I was watching the news the other day, Sophie.
Sophie: Learn anything interesting?
Neil: Yes, actually. UK scientists have been authorised by the government to genetically
modify human embryos for research.
What they can't do though is implant modified embryos into women.
They talked a lot about gene editing.
Sophie: Can you explain to us what gene editing is?
Neil: Mmm... I think this means there are these letters in a code
A-B-C something... I can't remember exactly...
Sophie: Gene editing is the ability to manipulate – or control – DNA.
And in case you didn't know, DNA is short for deoxyribonucleic acid
this is a substance in the cells of animals and plants that contains genetic information.
And a gene is part of the DNA in the cell that controls the physical development
and behaviour of a plant or animal and is passed on from its parents.
Neil: Phew! Thanks for the science lesson, Sophie.
Sophie: You're welcome. Now here's a question for you,
Which science fiction film anticipates gene editing in a dystopian society
where humans are genetically engineered? Is it... a) Robocop
b) Gattaca or c) Blade Runner
Neil: Mmm... I don't really understand the question but I'm going to say c) Blade Runner.
What's dystopian?
Sophie: Dystopian means an imaginary society where people are unhappy and afraid.
Well, moving on, let's listen to BBC journalist Fergus Walsh talking about how gene editing works.
Fergus Walsh: Think of gene editing as a molecular sat nav.
It scans the DNA searching for the error.
Then it uses molecular scissors to snip through both strands, which switches off the faulty gene.
Or it can repair the code by inserting a healthy copy of the gene.
These techniques raise the prospect of treating ... even curing – some genetic diseases
and it's not science fiction.
Sophie: So DNA is a set of instructions for how our bodies work
written using a chemical code of four letters – A, T, C, G.
But sometimes the code contains mistakes.
Neil: Yes. You find spelling mistakes by scanning – or searching – through the DNA.
Then you snip – or cut out – the mistake or faulty gene from the code using molecular scissors.
Faulty by the way, means something that isn't working properly ... like the faulty brakes on my bike.
Sophie: That sounds really dangerous, Neil!
Neil: Yeah, but I'm more worried about my faulty genes.
I might have all sorts of genetic mistakes inside me.
Sophie: That wouldn't surprise me.
But you've actually touched on a serious point.
Latest research suggests all our bodies do contain genetic mistakes,
some of which could cause disease.
And as reporter Fergus Walsh said at the end of the clip,
gene editing could be important for treating or even curing inherited genetic diseases.
For patients with blood, immune, muscle or skin disorders
it offers the possibility that their faulty cells could be removed,
or changed in the lab, and then put back.
Neil: That sounds amazing. But is there a catch?
Sophie: And that means a problem or drawback.
Yes. Some people think that if editing the genes of a human embryo is allowed for curing disease,
this will lead to editing the genes of embryos for reasons other than health.
Let's listen to Marcy Darnovsky,
executive director of the Centre for Genetics and Society in California talking about her concerns.
Marcy Darnovsky: It's too risky, we don't need it, there are other ways to have healthy children,
and it would open the door – possibly – to a world of genetic haves and have nots.
We don't need more inequality, we don't need more discrimination in the world.
Neil: An embryo by the way is an animal or human starting to develop inside its mother.
Marcy Darnovsky is against gene editing because it may be used to create designer babies
or babies whose genes have been selected to have certain desirable characteristics.
Sophie: She says it may open the door
or make it possible – a situation where
embryos are genetically enhanced or improved ... to be more intelligent or physically stronger, for example.
Neil: And this will lead to more discrimination in the world
which means treating some people less fairly than others.
Sophie: which is something that science fiction has been predicting for many years.
It's that dystopian society we were discussing earlier, Neil!
Which science fiction film anticipates gene editing in a dystopian society
where humans are genetically engineered?
Is it... a) Robocop b) Gattaca or c) Blade Runner?
Neil: And I said c) Blade Runner.
Sophie: Sorry, Neil! It was b) Gattaca.
This 1997 sci-fi film centres on the character Vincent Freeman,
who wasn't genetically engineered, but is able to buy the genetic identity of another man
in order to pursue his dream of travelling into space.
The film's title uses the letters G, A, T and C, which are the four chemical codes making up DNA.
Now here are today's words:
gene editing
manipulate
DNA
gene
dystopian
scanning
snip
faulty
catch
embryo
designer babies
open the door
enhanced
discrimination
Neil: Well, that's the end of today's 6 Minute English.
Please do join us again soon!
Both: Bye.
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BBC 6 Minute English February 25, 2016 - It's all in the genes

5710 Folder Collection
Adam Huang published on February 27, 2016
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