B2 High-Intermediate US 4793 Folder Collection
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PCI Express, officially abbreviated as PCIe, is a high-speed serial computer expansion
bus standard designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X, and AGP bus standards. PCIe has
numerous improvements over the aforementioned bus standards, including higher maximum system
bus throughput, lower I/O pin count and smaller physical footprint, better performance-scaling
for bus devices, a more detailed error detection and reporting mechanism), and native hot-plug
functionality. More recent revisions of the PCIe standard support hardware I/O virtualization.
The PCI Express electrical interface is also used in a variety of other standards, most
notably in ExpressCard which is a laptop expansion card interface, and in SATA Express which
is a computer storage interface. Format specifications are maintained and developed
by the PCI-SIG, a group of more than 900 companies that also maintain the conventional PCI specifications.
PCIe 3.0 is the latest standard for expansion cards that is in production and available
on mainstream personal computers.
Architecture
Conceptually, the PCIe bus is like a high-speed serial replacement of the older PCI/PCI-X
bus, an interconnect bus using shared address/data lines.
A key difference between PCIe bus and the older PCI is the bus topology. PCI uses a
shared parallel bus architecture, where the PCI host and all devices share a common set
of addresscontrol lines. In contrast, PCIe is based on point-to-point topology, with
separate serial links connecting every device to the root complex. Due to its shared bus
topology, access to the older PCI bus is arbitrated, and limited to one master at a time, in a
single direction. Furthermore, the older PCI clocking scheme limits the bus clock to the
slowest peripheral on the bus. In contrast, a PCIe bus link supports full-duplex communication
between any two endpoints, with no inherent limitation on concurrent access across multiple
endpoints. In terms of bus protocol, PCIe communication
is encapsulated in packets. The work of packetizing and de-packetizing data and status-message
traffic is handled by the transaction layer of the PCIe port. Radical differences in electrical
signaling and bus protocol require the use of a different mechanical form factor and
expansion connectors; PCI slots and PCIe slots are not interchangeable. At the software level,
PCIe preserves backward compatibility with PCI; legacy PCI system software can detect
and configure newer PCIe devices without explicit support for the PCIe standard, though PCIe's
new features are inaccessible. The PCIe link between two devices can consist
of anywhere from 1 to 32 lanes. In a multi-lane link, the packet data is striped across lanes,
and peak data-throughput scales with the overall link width. The lane count is automatically
negotiated during device initialization, and can be restricted by either endpoint. For
example, a single-lane PCIe card can be inserted into a multi-lane slot, and the initialization
cycle auto-negotiates the highest mutually supported lane count. The link can dynamically
down-configure the link to use fewer lanes, thus providing some measure of failure tolerance
in the presence of bad or unreliable lanes. The PCIe standard defines slots and connectors
for multiple widths: ×1, ×4, ×8, ×16, ×32. This allows PCIe bus to serve both cost-sensitive
applications where high throughput is not needed, as well as performance-critical applications
such as 3D graphics, networking, and enterprise storage.
As a point of reference, a PCI-X device and PCIe device using four lanes, Gen1 speed have
roughly the same peak transfer rate in a single-direction: 1064 MB/sec. The PCIe bus has the potential
to perform better than the PCI-X bus in cases where multiple devices are transferring data
simultaneously, or if communication with the PCIe peripheral is bidirectional.
Interconnect PCIe devices communicate via a logical connection
called an interconnect or link. A link is a point-to-point communication channel between
two PCIe ports, allowing both to send/receive ordinary PCI-requests and interrupts. At the
physical level, a link is composed of one or more lanes. Low-speed peripherals use a
single-lane link, while a graphics adapter typically uses a much wider 16-lane link.
Lane A lane is composed of two differential signaling
pairs: one pair for receiving data, the other for transmitting. Thus, each lane is composed
of four wires or signal traces. Conceptually, each lane is used as a full-duplex byte stream,
transporting data packets in eight-bit 'byte' format, between endpoints of a link, in both
directions simultaneously. Physical PCIe slots may contain from one to thirty-two lanes,
in powers of two. Lane counts are written with an × prefix, with ×16 being the largest
size in common use. Serial bus
The bonded serial format was chosen over a traditional parallel bus format due to the
latter's inherent limitations, including single-duplex operation, excess signal count and an inherently
lower bandwidth due to timing skew. Timing skew results from separate electrical signals
within a parallel interface traveling down different-length conductors, on potentially
different printed circuit board layers, at possibly different signal velocities. Despite
being transmitted simultaneously as a single word, signals on a parallel interface experience
different travel times and arrive at their destinations at different moments. When the
interface clock rate is increased to a point where its inverse is shorter than the largest
possible time between signal arrivals, the signals no longer arrive with sufficient coincidence
to make recovery of the transmitted word possible. Since timing skew over a parallel bus can
amount to a few nanoseconds, the resulting bandwidth limitation is in the range of hundreds
of megahertz. A serial interface does not exhibit timing
skew because there is only one differential signal in each direction within each lane,
and there is no external clock signal since clocking information is embedded within the
serial signal. As such, typical bandwidth limitations on serial signals are in the multi-gigahertz
range. PCIe is just one example of a general trend away from parallel buses to serial interconnects.
Other examples include Serial ATA, USB, SAS, FireWire and RapidIO.
Multichannel serial design increases flexibility by allocating slow devices to fewer lanes
than fast devices. Form factors
PCI Express
A PCIe card fits into a slot of its physical size or larger, but may not fit into a smaller
PCIe slot. Some slots use open-ended sockets to permit physically longer cards and negotiate
the best available electrical connection. The number of lanes actually connected to
a slot may also be less than the number supported by the physical slot size.
An example is a ×16 slot that runs at ×4. This slot will accept any ×1, ×2, ×4, ×8,
or ×16 card, but provides only ×4 speed. Its specification may read: ×16; "×size
@ ×speed" notation is also common. The advantage is that such slot can accommodate a larger
range of PCIe cards without requiring motherboard hardware to support the full transfer rate.
Pinout The following table identifies the conductors
on each side of the edge connector on a PCI Express card. The solder side of the printed
circuit board is the A side, and the component side is the B side. PRSNT1# and PRSNT2# pins
must be slightly shorter than the rest, to ensure that a hot-plugged card is fully inserted.
The WAKE# pin uses full voltage to wake the computer, but must be pulled high from the
standby power to indicate that the card is wake capable.
Power All sizes of ×4 and ×8 PCI Express cards
are allowed a maximum power consumption of 25 W. All ×1 cards are initially 10 W;
full-height cards may configure themselves as 'high-power' to reach 25 W, while half-height
×1 cards are fixed at 10 W. All sizes of ×16 cards are initially 25 W; like ×1 cards,
half-height cards are limited to this number while full-height cards may increase their
power after configuration. They can use up to 75 W, though the specification demands
that the higher-power configuration be used for graphics cards only, while cards of other
purposes are to remain at 25 W. Optional connectors add 75 W or 150 W power
for up to 300 W total. Some cards are using two 8-pin connectors, but this has not been
standardized yet, therefore such cards must not carry the official PCI Express logo. This
configuration would allow 375 W total and will likely be standardized by PCI-SIG with
the PCI Express 4.0 standard. The 8-pin PCI Express connector could be mistaken with the
EPS12V connector, which is mainly used for powering SMP and multi-core systems.
PCI Express Mini Card
PCI Express Mini Card, based on PCI Express, is a replacement for the Mini PCI form factor.
It is developed by the PCI-SIG. The host device supports both PCI Express and USB 2.0 connectivity,
and each card may use either standard. Most laptop computers built after 2005 are based
on PCI Express. Physical dimensions
PCI Express Mini Cards are 30×50.95 mm. There is a 52-pin edge connector, consisting
of two staggered rows on a 0.8 mm pitch. Each row has eight contacts, a gap equivalent
to four contacts, then a further 18 contacts. A half-length card is also specified 30×26.8 mm.
Cards have a thickness of 1.0 mm. Electrical interface
PCI Express Mini Card edge connectors provide multiple connections and buses:
PCIe ×1 USB 2.0
SMBus Wires to diagnostics LEDs for wireless network
status on computer's chassis SIM card for GSM and WCDMA applications.
Future extension for another PCIe lane 1.5 and 3.3 volt power
Mini PCI Express & mSATA Despite sharing the mini-PCI Express form
factor, an mSATA slot is not necessarily electrically compatible with Mini PCI Express. For this
reason, only certain notebooks are compatible with mSATA drives. Most compatible systems
are based on Intel's Sandy Bridge processor architecture, using the Huron River platform.
But for a mSATA/mini-PCI-E connector, the only prerequisite is that there is a switch
which makes it either a mSATA or a mini-PCI-E slot and can be implemented on any platform.
Notebooks like Lenovo's T-Series, W-Series, and X-Series ThinkPads released in March–April
2011 have support for an mSATA SSD card in their WWAN card slot. The ThinkPad Edge E220s/E420s,
and the Lenovo IdeaPad Y460/Y560 also support mSATA.
Some notebooks use a variant of the PCI Express Mini Card as an SSD. This variant uses the
reserved and several non-reserved pins to implement SATA and IDE interface passthrough,
keeping only USB, ground lines, and sometimes the core PCIe 1x bus intact. This makes the
'miniPCIe' flash and solid state drives sold for netbooks largely incompatible with true
PCI Express Mini implementations. Also, the typical Asus miniPCIe SSD is 71 mm
long, causing the Dell 51 mm model to often be referred to as half length. A true 51 mm
Mini PCIe SSD was announced in 2009, with two stacked PCB layers, which allows for higher
storage capacity. The announced design preserves the PCIe interface, making it compatible with
the standard mini PCIe slot. No working product has yet been developed.
Intel has numerous desktop boards with the PCIe ×1 Mini-Card slot which typically do
not support mSATA SSD. A list of desktop boards that natively support mSATA in the PCIe ×1
Mini-Card slot is provided on the Intel Support site.
PCI Express External Cabling PCI Express External Cabling specifications
were released by the PCI-SIG in February 2007. Standard cables and connectors have been defined
for ×1, ×4, ×8, and ×16 link widths, with a transfer rate of 250 MB/s per lane. The
PCI-SIG also expects the norm will evolve to reach 500 MB/s, as in PCI Express 2.0.
The maximum cable length remains undetermined. An example of the uses of Cabled PCI Express
is a metal enclosure, containing a number of PCI slots and PCI-to-ePCIe adapter circuitry.
This device would not be possible had it not been for the ePCIe spec.
Derivative forms There are several other expansion card types
derived from PCIe. These include: Low-height card
ExpressCard: successor to the PC Card form factor
PCI Express ExpressModule: a hot-pluggable modular form factor defined for servers and
workstations XQD card: a PCI Express-based flash card standard
by the CompactFlash Association XMC: similar to the CMC/PMC form factor
AdvancedTCA: a complement to CompactPCI for larger applications; supports serial based
backplane topologies AMC: a complement to the AdvancedTCA specification;
supports processor and I/O modules on ATCA boards.
FeaturePak: a tiny expansion card format for embedded and small form factor applications;
it implements two ×1 PCIe links on a high-density connector along with USB, I2C, and up to 100
points of I/O. Universal IO: A variant from Super Micro Computer
Inc designed for use in low-profile rack-mounted chassis. It has the connector bracket reversed
so it cannot fit in a normal PCI Express socket, but it is pin-compatible and may be inserted
if the bracket is removed. Thunderbolt: A variant from Intel that combines
DisplayPort and PCIe protocols in a form factor compatible with Mini DisplayPort.
Serial Digital Video Out: some 9xx series Intel chipsets allow for adding an additional
output for the integrated video into a PCIe slot
M.2 M-PCIe brings PCIe 3.0 to mobile devices,
over the M-PHY physical layer. History and revisions
While in early development, PCIe was initially referred to as HSI, and underwent a name change
to 3GIO before finally settling on its PCI-SIG name PCI Express. A technical working group
named the Arapaho Work Group drew up the standard. For initial drafts, the AWG consisted only
of Intel engineers; subsequently the AWG expanded to include industry partners.
PCI Express is a technology under constant development and improvement. As of 2013 the
PCI Express implementation has reached version 4.
PCI Express 1.0a In 2003, PCI-SIG introduced PCIe 1.0a, with
a per-lane data rate of 250 MB/s and a transfer rate of 2.5 gigatransfers per second. Transfer
rate is expressed in transfers per second instead of bits per second because the number
of transfers includes the overhead bits, which do not provide additional throughput.
PCIe 1.x uses an 8b/10b encoding scheme that results in a 20 percent/10) overhead on the
raw bit rate. It uses a 2.5 GHz clock rate, therefore delivering an effective 250 000
000 bytes per second maximum data rate. PCI Express 1.1
In 2005, PCI-SIG introduced PCIe 1.1. This updated specification includes clarifications
and several improvements, but is fully compatible with PCI Express 1.0a. No changes were made
to the data rate. PCI Express 2.0
PCI-SIG announced the availability of the PCI Express Base 2.0 specification on 15 January
2007. The PCIe 2.0 standard doubles the transfer rate compared with PCIe 1.0 to 5 GT/s and
the per-lane throughput rises from 250 MB/s to 500 MB/s. This means a 32-lane PCIe connector
can support throughput up to 16 GB/s aggregate. PCIe 2.0 motherboard slots are fully backward
compatible with PCIe v1.x cards. PCIe 2.0 cards are also generally backward compatible
with PCIe 1.x motherboards, using the available bandwidth of PCI Express 1.1. Overall, graphic
cards or motherboards designed for v2.0 will work with the other being v1.1 or v1.0a.
The PCI-SIG also said that PCIe 2.0 features improvements to the point-to-point data transfer
protocol and its software architecture. Intel's first PCIe 2.0 capable chipset was
the X38 and boards began to ship from various vendors as of October 21, 2007. AMD started
supporting PCIe 2.0 with its AMD 700 chipset series and nVidia started with the MCP72.
All of Intel's prior chipsets, including the Intel P35 chipset, supported PCIe 1.1 or 1.0a.
Like 1.x, PCIe 2.0 uses an 8b/10b encoding scheme, therefore delivering, per-lane, an
effective 4 Gbit/s max transfer rate from its 5 GT/s raw data rate.
PCI Express 2.1 PCI Express 2.1 supports a large proportion
of the management, support, and troubleshooting systems planned for full implementation in
PCI Express 3.0. However, the speed is the same as PCI Express 2.0. Unfortunately, the
increase in power from the slot breaks backward compatibility between PCI Express 2.1 cards
and some older motherboards with 1.0/1.0a, but most motherboards with PCI Express 1.1
connectors are provided with a BIOS update by their manufacturers through utilities to
support backward compatibility of cards with PCIe 2.1.
PCI Express 3.x PCI Express 3.0 Base specification revision
3.0 was made available in November 2010, after multiple delays. In August 2007, PCI-SIG announced
that PCI Express 3.0 would carry a bit rate of 8 gigatransfers per second, and that it
would be backward compatible with existing PCI Express implementations. At that time,
it was also announced that the final specification for PCI Express 3.0 would be delayed until
2011. New features for the PCI Express 3.0 specification include a number of optimizations
for enhanced signaling and data integrity, including transmitter and receiver equalization,
PLL improvements, clock data recovery, and channel enhancements for currently supported
topologies. Following a six-month technical analysis of
the feasibility of scaling the PCI Express interconnect bandwidth, PCI-SIG's analysis
found that 8 gigatransfers per second can be manufactured in mainstream silicon process
technology, and can be deployed with existing low-cost materials and infrastructure, while
maintaining full compatibility to the PCI Express protocol stack.
PCI Express 3.0 upgrades the encoding scheme to 128b/130b from the previous 8b/10b encoding,
reducing the overhead to approximately 1.54%/130), as opposed to the 20% overhead of PCI Express
2.0. This is achieved by a technique called "scrambling" that applies a known binary polynomial
to a data stream in a feedback topology. Because the scrambling polynomial is known, the data
can be recovered by running it through a feedback topology using the inverse polynomial. PCI
Express 3.0's 8 GT/s bit rate effectively delivers 985 MB/s per lane, practically doubling
the lane bandwidth relative to PCI Express 2.0.
On November 18, 2010, the PCI Special Interest Group officially published the finalized PCI
Express 3.0 specification to its members to build devices based on this new version of
PCI Express. PCI Express 3.1 specification is scheduled
to be released in late 2013 or early 2014, consolidating various improvements to the
published PCI Express 3.1 specification in three areas – power management, performance
and functionality. PCI Express 4.0
On November 29, 2011, PCI-SIG announced PCI Express 4.0 featuring 16 GT/s, still based
on copper technology. Additionally, active and idle power optimizations are to be investigated.
Final specifications are expected to be released in 2014 or 2015.
Extensions and future directions Some vendors offer PCIe over fiber products,
but these generally find use only in specific cases where transparent PCIe bridging is preferable
to using a more mainstream standard that may require additional software to support it;
current implementations focus on distance rather than raw bandwidth and typically do
not implement a full ×16 link. Thunderbolt was developed by Intel as a general-purpose
high speed interface combining a ×4 PCIe link with DisplayPort and was originally intended
to be an all-fiber interface, but due to early difficulties in creating a consumer-friendly
fiber interconnect, most early implementations are hybrid copper-fiber systems. A notable
exception, the Sony VAIO Z VPC-Z2, uses a nonstandard USB port with an optical component
to connect to an outboard PCIe display adapter. Apple has been the primary driver of Thunderbolt
adoption through 2011, though several other vendors have announced new products and systems
featuring Thunderbolt. Mobile PCIe specification allows PCI Express
architecture to operate over the MIPI Alliance's M-PHY physical layer technology. Building
on top of already existing widespread adoption of M-PHY and its low-power design, Mobile
PCIe allows PCI Express to be used in tablets and smartphones.
A proposed extension called OCuLink, as a competitor to Thunderbolt, was reported in
the press in September 2013. It is "the cable version of PCI Express", but despite what
its name might suggest it is intended to be copper-based, and up to four lanes wide. Its
target launch date is mid-2014. Hardware protocol summary
The PCIe link is built around dedicated unidirectional couples of serial, point-to-point connections
known as lanes. This is in sharp contrast to the earlier PCI connection, which is a
bus-based system where all the devices share the same bidirectional, 32-bit or 64-bit parallel
bus. PCI Express is a layered protocol, consisting
of a transaction layer, a data link layer, and a physical layer. The Data Link Layer
is subdivided to include a media access control sublayer. The Physical Layer is subdivided
into logical and electrical sublayers. The Physical logical-sublayer contains a physical
coding sublayer. The terms are borrowed from the IEEE 802 networking protocol model.
Physical layer The PCIe Physical Layer specification is divided
into two sub-layers, corresponding to electrical and logical specifications. The logical sublayer
is sometimes further divided into a MAC sublayer and a PCS, although this division is not formally
part of the PCIe specification. A specification published by Intel, the PHY Interface for
PCI Express, defines the MAC/PCS functional partitioning and the interface between these
two sub-layers. The PIPE specification also identifies the physical media attachment layer,
which includes the serializer/deserializer and other analog circuitry; however, since
SerDes implementations vary greatly among ASIC vendors, PIPE does not specify an interface
between the PCS and PMA. At the electrical level, each lane consists
of two unidirectional LVDS or PCML pairs at 2.525 Gbit/s. Transmit and receive are separate
differential pairs, for a total of four data wires per lane.
A connection between any two PCIe devices is known as a link, and is built up from a
collection of one or more lanes. All devices must minimally support single-lane link. Devices
may optionally support wider links composed of 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, or 32 lanes. This allows
for very good compatibility in two ways: A PCIe card physically fits in any slot that
is at least as large as it is; A slot of a large physical size can be wired
electrically with fewer lanes as long as it provides the ground connections required by
the larger physical slot size. In both cases, PCIe negotiates the highest
mutually supported number of lanes. Many graphics cards, motherboards and BIOS versions are
verified to support ×1, ×4, ×8 and ×16 connectivity on the same connection.
Even though the two would be signal-compatible, it is not usually possible to place a physically
larger PCIe card into a smaller slot – though if the PCIe slots are altered or a
riser is used most motherboards will allow this. Typically, this technique is used for
connecting multiple monitors to a single computer. The width of a PCIe connector is 8.8 mm,
while the height is 11.25 mm, and the length is variable. The fixed section of the connector
is 11.65 mm in length and contains two rows of 11, while the length of the other section
is variable depending on the number of lanes. The pins are spaced at 1 mm intervals, and
the thickness of the card going into the connector is 1.8 mm.
Data transmission PCIe sends all control messages, including
interrupts, over the same links used for data. The serial protocol can never be blocked,
so latency is still comparable to conventional PCI, which has dedicated interrupt lines.
Data transmitted on multiple-lane links is interleaved, meaning that each successive
byte is sent down successive lanes. The PCIe specification refers to this interleaving
as data striping. While requiring significant hardware complexity to synchronize the incoming
striped data, striping can significantly reduce the latency of the nth byte on a link. Due
to padding requirements, striping may not necessarily reduce the latency of small data
packets on a link. As with other high data rate serial transmission
protocols, the clock is embedded in the signal. At the physical level, PCI Express 2.0 utilizes
the 8b/10b encoding scheme to ensure that strings of consecutive ones or consecutive
zeros are limited in length. This coding was used to prevent the receiver from losing track
of where the bit edges are. In this coding scheme every eight payload bits of data are
replaced with 10 bits of transmit data, causing a 20% overhead in the electrical bandwidth.
To improve the available bandwidth, PCI Express version 3.0 employs 128b/130b encoding instead:
similar but with much lower overhead. Many other protocols use a different form
of encoding known as scrambling to embed clock information into data streams. The PCIe specification
also defines a scrambling algorithm, but it is used to reduce electromagnetic interference
by preventing repeating data patterns in the transmitted data stream.
Data link layer The Data Link Layer performs three vital services
for the PCIe express link: sequence the transaction layer packets that
are generated by the transaction layer, ensure reliable delivery of TLPs between two
endpoints via an acknowledgement protocol that explicitly requires replay of unacknowledged/bad
TLPs, initialize and manage flow control credits
On the transmit side, the data link layer generates an incrementing sequence number
for each outgoing TLP. It serves as a unique identification tag for each transmitted TLP,
and is inserted into the header of the outgoing TLP. A 32-bit cyclic redundancy check code
is also appended to the end of each outgoing TLP.
On the receive side, the received TLP's LCRC and sequence number are both validated in
the link layer. If either the LCRC check fails, or the sequence-number is out of range, then
the bad TLP, as well as any TLPs received after the bad TLP, are considered invalid
and discarded. The receiver sends a negative acknowledgement message with the sequence-number
of the invalid TLP, requesting re-transmission of all TLPs forward of that sequence-number.
If the received TLP passes the LCRC check and has the correct sequence number, it is
treated as valid. The link receiver increments the sequence-number, and forwards the valid
TLP to the receiver's transaction layer. An ACK message is sent to remote transmitter,
indicating the TLP was successfully received If the transmitter receives a NAK message,
or no acknowledgement is received until a timeout period expires, the transmitter must
retransmit all TLPs that lack a positive acknowledgement. Barring a persistent malfunction of the device
or transmission medium, the link-layer presents a reliable connection to the transaction layer,
since the transmission protocol ensures delivery of TLPs over an unreliable medium.
In addition to sending and receiving TLPs generated by the transaction layer, the data-link
layer also generates and consumes DLLPs, data link layer packets. ACK and NAK signals are
communicated via DLLPs, as are flow control credit information, some power management
messages and flow control credit information. In practice, the number of in-flight, unacknowledged
TLPs on the link is limited by two factors: the size of the transmitter's replay buffer,
and the flow control credits issued by the receiver to a transmitter. PCI Express requires
all receivers to issue a minimum number of credits, to guarantee a link allows sending
PCIConfig TLPs and message TLPs. Transaction layer
PCI Express implements split transactions, allowing the link to carry other traffic while
the target device gathers data for the response. PCI Express uses credit-based flow control.
In this scheme, a device advertises an initial amount of credit for each received buffer
in its transaction layer. The device at the opposite end of the link, when sending transactions
to this device, counts the number of credits each TLP consumes from its account. The sending
device may only transmit a TLP when doing so does not make its consumed credit count
exceed its credit limit. When the receiving device finishes processing the TLP from its
buffer, it signals a return of credits to the sending device, which increases the credit
limit by the restored amount. The credit counters are modular counters, and the comparison of
consumed credits to credit limit requires modular arithmetic. The advantage of this
scheme is that the latency of credit return does not affect performance, provided that
the credit limit is not encountered. This assumption is generally met if each device
is designed with adequate buffer sizes. PCIe 1.x is often quoted to support a data
rate of 250 MB/s in each direction, per lane. This figure is a calculation from the physical
signaling rate divided by the encoding overhead This means a sixteen lane PCIe card would
then be theoretically capable of 16×250 MB/s = 4 GB/s in each direction. While this is
correct in terms of data bytes, more meaningful calculations are based on the usable data
payload rate, which depends on the profile of the traffic, which is a function of the
high-level application and intermediate protocol levels.
Like other high data rate serial interconnect systems, PCIe has a protocol and processing
overhead due to the additional transfer robustness. Long continuous unidirectional transfers can
approach >95% of PCIe's raw data rate. These transfers also benefit the most from increased
number of lanes But in more typical applications, the traffic profile is characterized as short
data packets with frequent enforced acknowledgements. This type of traffic reduces the efficiency
of the link, due to overhead from packet parsing and forced interrupts. Being a protocol for
devices connected to the same printed circuit board, it does not require the same tolerance
for transmission errors as a protocol for communication over longer distances, and thus,
this loss of efficiency is not particular to PCIe.
Applications
PCI Express operates in consumer, server, and industrial applications, as a motherboard-level
interconnect, a passive backplane interconnect and as an expansion card interface for add-in
boards. In virtually all modern PCs, from consumer
laptops and desktops to enterprise data servers, the PCIe bus serves as the primary motherboard-level
interconnect, connecting the host system-processor with both integrated-peripherals and add-on
peripherals. In most of these systems, the PCIe bus co-exists with one or more legacy
PCI buses, for backward compatibility with the large body of legacy PCI peripherals.
As of 2013 PCI Express has replaced AGP as the default interface for graphics cards on
new systems. Almost all models of graphics cards released since 2010 by AMD and Nvidia
use PCI Express. Nvidia uses the high-bandwidth data transfer of PCIe for its Scalable Link
Interface technology, which allows multiple graphics cards of the same chipset and model
number to run in tandem, allowing increased performance. AMD has also developed a multi-GPU
system based on PCIe called CrossFire. AMD and Nvidia have released motherboard chipsets
that support as many as four PCIe ×16 slots, allowing tri-GPU and quad-GPU card configurations.
External GPUs Theoretically, external PCIe could give a
notebook the graphics power of a desktop, by connecting a notebook with any PCIe desktop
video card; possible with an ExpressCard interface or a Thunderbolt interface. The ExpressCard
interface provides bit rates of 5 Gbit/s, whereas the Thunderbolt interface provides
bit rates of up to 10 Gbit/s. There are now card hubs that can connect to
a laptop through an ExpressCard slot, though they are currently rare, obscure, or unavailable
on the open market. These hubs can accept full-sized cards. Examples include MSI GUS,
Village Instrument's ViDock, the Asus XG Station, Bplus PE4H V3.2 adapter, as well as more improvised
DIY devices. In 2008, AMD announced the ATI XGP technology,
based on a proprietary cabling system that is compatible with PCIe ×8 signal transmissions.
This connector is available on the Fujitsu Amilo and the Acer Ferrari One notebooks.
Fujitsu launched their AMILO GraphicBooster enclosure for XGP soon thereafter. Around
2010 Acer launched the Dynavivid graphics dock for XGP.
Thunderbolt has given opportunity to new and faster products to connect with a PCIe card
externally. Magma has released the ExpressBox 3T, which can hold up to three PCIe cards.
MSI also released the Thunderbolt GUS II, a PCIe chassis dedicated for video cards.
Other products such as the Sonnet’s Echo Express and mLogic’s mLink are Thunderbolt
PCIe chassis in a smaller form factor. However, all these products require the use of a Thunderbolt
port, making them incompatible with the vast majority of computers.
For the professional market, Nvidia has developed the Quadro Plex external PCIe family of GPUs
that can be used for advanced graphic applications. These video cards require a PCI Express ×8
or ×16 slot for the host-side card which connects to the Plex via a VHDCI carrying
8 PCIe lanes. Storage devices
PCI Express protocol can be used as data interface to flash memory devices, such as memory cards
and solid-state drives. XQD card is a memory card format utilizing
PCI Express, developed by the CompactFlash Association, with transfer rates of up to
500 MB/s. Many high-performance, enterprise-class SSDs
are designed as PCI Express RAID controller cards with flash memory chips placed directly
on the circuit board, utilizing proprietary interfaces and custom drivers to communicate
with the operating system; this allows much higher transfer rates and IOPS when compared
to Serial ATA or SAS drives. For example, in 2011 OCZ and Marvell co-developed a native
PCI Express solid-state drive controller for a PCI Express 3.0 ×16 slot with maximum capacity
of 12 TB and a performance of to 7.2 GB/s sequential transfers and up to 2.52 million
IOPS in random transfers. SATA Express is an interface for connecting
SSDs, by providing multiple PCI Express lanes as a pure PCI Express connection to the attached
storage device. M.2 is a specification for internally mounted computer expansion cards
and associated connectors, which also uses multiple PCI Express lanes.
PCI Express storage devices can implement both AHCI logical interface for backward compatibility,
and NVM Express logical interface for much faster I/O operations provided by utilizing
internal parallelism offered by such devices. Enterprise-class SSDs can also implement SCSI
over PCI Express. Cluster interconnect
Certain data-center applications require the use of fiber-optic interconnects due to the
distance limitations inherent in copper cabling. Typically, a network-oriented standard such
as Ethernet or Fibre Channel suffices for these applications, but in some cases the
overhead introduced by routable protocols is undesirable and a lower-level interconnect,
such as InfiniBand, RapidIO, or NUMAlink is needed. Local-bus standards such as PCIe and
HyperTransport can in principle be used for this purpose, but as of 2012 no major vendors
offer systems in this vein. Competing protocols
Several communications standards have emerged based on high bandwidth serial architectures.
These include InfiniBand, RapidIO, HyperTransport, QPI, StarFabric, and MIPI LLI. The differences
are based on the tradeoffs between flexibility and extensibility vs latency and overhead.
An example of such a tradeoff is adding complex header information to a transmitted packet
to allow for complex routing. The additional overhead reduces the effective bandwidth of
the interface and complicates bus discovery and initialization software. Also making the
system hot-pluggable requires that software track network topology changes. Examples of
buses suited for this purpose are InfiniBand and StarFabric.
Another example is making the packets shorter to decrease latency. Smaller packets mean
packet headers consume a higher percentage of the packet, thus decreasing the effective
bandwidth. Examples of bus protocols designed for this purpose are RapidIO and HyperTransport.
PCI Express falls somewhere in the middle, targeted by design as a system interconnect
rather than a device interconnect or routed network protocol. Additionally, its design
goal of software transparency constrains the protocol and raises its latency somewhat.
Development tools When developing or troubleshooting the PCI
Express bus, examination of hardware signals can be very important to find the problems.
Oscilloscopes, logic analyzers and bus analyzers are tools that collect, analyze, decode, store
signals so people can view the high-speed waveforms at their leisure.
See also
References
Further reading Budruk, Ravi; Anderson, Don; Shanley, Tom,
Winkles, Joseph ‘Joe’, ed., PCI Express System Architecture, Mind share PC system
architecture, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 978-0-321-15630-3  1120 pp.
Solari, Edward; Congdon, Brad, Complete PCI Express Reference: Design Implications for
Hardware and Software Developers, Intel, ISBN 978-0-9717861-9-6 , 1056 pp.
Wilen, Adam; Schade, Justin P; Thornburg, Ron, Introduction to PCI Express: A
Hardware and Software Developer's Guide, Intel, ISBN 978-0-9702846-9-3 , 325 pp.
External links PCI-SIG , the industry organization that
maintains and develops the various PCI standards PCI-Express Specification, PCI-SIG 
PCI Express Base Specification Revision 1.0. PCI-SIG. 29 April 2002.). 
"PCI Express Architecture", Developer Network, Intel 
Introduction to PCI Protocol, Electro Friends  An introduction to how PCIe works at the TLP
level, Xilly Bus 
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PCI Express

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