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  • Prof: Good morning everybody.

  • In the last couple of lectures we have looked at what happened

  • when Rome took over civilizations that were older

  • than Rome's own, and arguably even more advanced

  • than Rome's own.

  • And what happened, of course, was an interesting

  • mix between the architecture and the architectural forms that the

  • Romans brought with them, and what they found in these

  • highly developed civilizations, and the interesting mix that

  • came about because of that.

  • But we've also taken a look at what happens when Rome went out

  • and created cities essentially from scratch,

  • built cities where there had been no cities before.

  • And what happened as a result tended to be cities that looked

  • very much in the Roman stamp.

  • And we're going to look at a number of those cities today,

  • in the western provinces of the Empire,

  • in fact, to see what happens again when Rome builds cities

  • from scratch in that part of the world,

  • and, as I mentioned already, the distinctive stamp,

  • this distinctive Roman stamp that they had.

  • But at the same time there is always some impact from the

  • local civilization, and to mention in passing that,

  • at least in the part of the world that we'll be

  • concentrating on today, especially in Gaul,

  • ancient Gaul, the Celtic tribes were foremost

  • there, and we do see that some of the

  • impact of those tribes makes itself felt,

  • as well as tribes in other parts of this part of the

  • ancient Roman world.

  • Just as a reminder, I want to show you again a

  • couple of the monuments that we looked at last time,

  • when we were talking about Greece and about Athens under

  • the Romans.

  • And I remind you, for example on the left-hand

  • side of the screen, of this Temple of Olympian

  • Zeus, the Olympieion in Athens, which was begun already in the

  • Archaic period, the Greek Archaic period,

  • continued to be built up-- those, the patrons tried to

  • complete it, in the course of the

  • Hellenistic period into the Augustan period,

  • and ultimately, as you'll remember,

  • it was completed under the emperor Hadrian.

  • So a building with a very long history and a very distinctive

  • style.

  • And when it was completed under Hadrian,

  • of course, you'll recall that it looked entirely Greek --

  • very similar to what it would have been in the Hellenistic

  • period.

  • So those--again, the Greeks holding very

  • tenaciously to their own plans, to their building materials,

  • and indeed to the kinds of architects and artisans to carve

  • them, that had been carving them for

  • centuries.

  • We also took a look at the building on the right-hand side

  • of the screen, which is the Horologion of

  • Andronicus, or the Tower of the Winds.

  • And you'll remember in this case that the civilization that

  • had impact on it was another firmly entrenched civilization

  • and that is that of Egypt.

  • We talked about the fact that while the date of this monument

  • is controversial-- it might be second century

  • B.C., it might be Caesarian, or even into the Augustan

  • period--it's controversial, but we talked about the fact

  • that even though the date is controversial,

  • that the monument itself was built under very strong

  • influence from Ptolemaic Egypt.

  • The Ptolemaic Egyptians particularly intrigued,

  • for example, by clocks--this was a water

  • clock, as you'll remember--and by

  • these abstruse, identifications of abstruse

  • winds, male winds, that we see in the uppermost

  • part.

  • So again, the impact of two very high civilizations--

  • the Greek civilization and the Egyptian civilization--

  • on Roman architecture in the eastern part of the world.

  • Today we're going to go west, and we're going to look at

  • Roman architecture in a variety of places,

  • including--and some beautiful places--

  • including the south of France: a series of cities--

  • and I'll point those out to you in a moment--

  • in the north of Italy.

  • So the north of Italy, the south of France,

  • into Spain, into what is now Spain.

  • And then also we will dip into an area called Istria,

  • which is the uppermost part of what is now Croatia,

  • where a place by the name of Pola is located.

  • So those western provinces will be the area that we're going to

  • concentrate on today.

  • Now any of you who've traveled in this part of the world know

  • that it is extraordinarily beautiful.

  • And I show you just one example of that.

  • When you go along the French Riviera,

  • for example, you see places as sophisticated

  • as Monte Carlo, with its yachts moored here,

  • and of course with its glittering nightlife and its

  • extremely famous casino, the Casino at Monte Carlo.

  • There are also other wonderful cities to visit along here,

  • modern cities, such that of Villefranche,

  • which you see here, and its fabulous pastel colored

  • houses, with boats that are not quite

  • as magnificent as those at Monte Carlo,

  • but nonetheless very picturesque, a wonderful place

  • to visit.

  • So it's not a hardship to have to travel and look at Roman

  • antiquities in the south of France.

  • I want to begin though with northern Italy,

  • with a city in the north of Italy, a city at a place called

  • Aosta.

  • It's the first on your Monument List for today.

  • A city that was founded by the Romans in 24 B.C.,

  • in the time of Augustus.

  • And therefore it won't surprise you to hear that its ancient

  • Roman name was Augusta Praetoria: Augusta Praetoria,

  • the modern city of Aosta.

  • And it was the last colony that the Romans founded in Italy;

  • the last colony.

  • And it's interesting to see therefore that this last Roman

  • colony in Italy takes almost exactly the shape of the first

  • Roman colony in Italy.

  • You'll remember the city of Ostia, which the Romans founded

  • in 350 B.C., and the way in which it conformed to the

  • typical castrum plan.

  • We see the same thing here.

  • We see this typical castrum plan for Aosta:

  • a rectangle, a regular rectangle,

  • laid out according to Roman surveying practice.

  • We see that the two major streets of the city,

  • the cardo and the decumanus,

  • meet in the center, and that at that intersection

  • of those two main streets we see the location,

  • as it should be, of the forum,

  • most likely.

  • You'll see a question mark there, so we're not absolutely

  • sure, but we think that the forum was located there.

  • If you look around at the rest of the city,

  • it was very regularly laid out, with a series of buildings that

  • we've become accustomed to seeing in a typical Roman city,

  • when a typical Roman city is built from the basics.

  • You see the baths here.

  • You see a temple up there, with a cryptoporticus.

  • You see a theater and you see an amphitheater.

  • This site, by the way, spectacularly located in the

  • Italian Alps.

  • It's at the intersection of two major trade routes,

  • in the St.

  • Bernard passes, as you can see from this plan

  • that comes from Ward-Perkins.

  • And what you can also see, that's typical of these cities

  • that the Romans build from scratch around the western part

  • of the Empire, is the fact that the city is

  • ringed with walls, and that it has a series of

  • gates, the openings of which you can also see in this excellent

  • plan.

  • Now I can show you also from the city of Aosta a surviving

  • Roman arch, one of those gateways in fact,

  • from the city, that we know dates to the age

  • of Augustus.

  • So we give it a date, the same date,

  • roughly 24 B.C.

  • You see it here.

  • You see, if you remember the arches that we've discussed from

  • the Augustan period in the past, you'll note right off that this

  • is very consistent with other Augustan arch design.

  • By that I mean it has one single arcuated bay,

  • in the center, flanked on either side by

  • pedestals, wide pedestals that have a set

  • of double columns on either side,

  • as you can see here.

  • The major difference between this and an arch that might have

  • been put up in Rome at the same time,

  • in the Augustan period, is the fact that it is made out

  • of local stone, which is characteristic of so

  • much of provincial Roman architecture,

  • and will be the case for most of the buildings that we look at

  • today.

  • The attic is gone.

  • There's a modern roof on top of the structure.

  • The ancient attic is gone.

  • But you can imagine that it would've had a fairly

  • traditional attic, with an inscription at the apex

  • and probably some kind of sculpture crowning the monument

  • in antiquity.

  • Now there's one detail that has to do with the orders that are

  • used here that is different from any other arch that we've seen

  • before.

  • And I wonder if any of you notice what that is.

  • The columnar orders.

  • They are what?

  • Doric, Ionic or Corinthian?

  • Students: Corinthian.

  • Prof: Corinthian.

  • Okay, everyone agrees they're Corinthian.

  • You're absolutely correct.

  • But what is strange about the fact--if you look above those

  • Corinthian columns, what do you see that doesn't

  • usually go with Corinthian columns?

  • Student: Oh, the triglyphs.

  • Prof: The triglyphs and the metopes;

  • the triglyphs and the metopes that tend to accompany the Doric

  • order.

  • So this is very interesting.

  • We see this mixing of the orders here, the use of

  • Corinthian columns but a Doric frieze with triglyphs and

  • metopes.

  • You'd never see that in Rome itself.

  • But what it is, is an interesting playing

  • around with the canonical orders that have been passed from Rome

  • to this part of the world.

  • This particular architect or patron,

  • or the city itself, whoever was the patron of this

  • particular monument, made the decision to go in a

  • somewhat different route.

  • So an interesting mixing of the orders --

  • an eccentric arch in that regard, but in every other

  • conforming quite closely to what we would see in Rome,

  • the city of Rome contemporaneously.

  • I want to go from Aosta, in the north of Italy,

  • to the south of France, to Provence,

  • to take a look at the original town plan of the city of Arles,

  • the well-known city of Arles.

  • And those of you who know it, or have been there,

  • know it probably primarily as the city of Vincent van Gogh.

  • It's in the city of Arles he spent a good deal of time.

  • He went to this particular café so often that it has

  • borne his name for some time, the Café

  • Van Gogh.

  • And you see another view of a lovely piazza in the city of--or

  • plaza in the city of Arles.

  • And then the famous painting of Van Gogh,

  • the panting that he made of this particular café,

  • that he used to spend so much time in,

  • a café again, as you see here,

  • that is still there, and where you can yourselves go

  • and sip an aperitif or whatever.

  • This part, the city of Arles, a wonderful place to go.

  • It has a very--I'm not going to show it to you in any detail,

  • just a glimpse here of its famous amphitheater.

  • It has a very well-preserved Roman amphitheater.

  • And the fact that France is so close--

  • as you can see in that map I showed you before--

  • to Spain, has led to quite a bit of Spanish influence coming

  • into this particular part of France.

  • And this amphitheater is used today not only for other kinds

  • of performances, but even for bullfights,

  • as you see.

  • This is actually a bullfight in Madrid,

  • not in Arles, but nonetheless it's the sort

  • of thing that has been performed even in the Amphitheater at

  • Arles.

  • Here's the map again.

  • Before I show you the city plan of Arles as it would've looked,

  • I just wanted to remind you of these towns in relationship to

  • one another.