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  • Prof: Good morning.

  • From the time of Julius Caesar, we have seen the rulers of Rome

  • brag about building buildings that were bigger than any others

  • in the world.

  • You'll remember Caesar referred to his Temple of Mars in that

  • way, that he was building the largest Temple of Mars in the

  • world.

  • And we also saw the same for Domitian, with his palace on the

  • Palatine Hill; for Trajan with his enormous

  • forum; for Hadrian,

  • building the greatest-- largest dome that had been

  • built up until that time and, as we discussed,

  • still the largest diameter dome in the city of Rome today;

  • and Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli, just as a selection of

  • examples.

  • We are going to see today that if bigger was better,

  • biggest is best, and in the case of the emperor

  • Caracalla, an emperor who was a

  • megalomaniac, in the tradition of Nero and

  • Domitian, that he built the largest

  • imperial bath structure to date.

  • And we're going to be looking at that bath structure today,

  • and we're going to see it as really a colossal and

  • fascinating building, in all kinds of ways.

  • But before I get to that--in fact,

  • we'll end with that bath structure today--

  • before I get to that, I would like to look with you

  • at architecture in Rome, in the second and third

  • centuries A.D., and we'll see that architecture

  • is quite varied in terms of whether it's private,

  • it's civic, it's also funerary.

  • I want to begin though by just reminding you of what we talked

  • about last time.

  • We looked at the city of Ostia, and we looked at the city of

  • Ostia, the port of Rome, in its entirety;

  • once again, its public buildings, its civic structures,

  • its commercial enterprises.

  • And we also went, at the very end of the lecture,

  • out to Isola Sacra, where the tombs of those who

  • lived in Ostia were located.

  • And I show you a couple of those again now on the screen;

  • these brick-faced tombs, these tombs that are made of

  • concrete, at Isola Sacra,

  • that were put up for the professionals,

  • for the traders, the commercial merchants and so

  • on that lived in the city of Ostia.

  • They were made of brick-faced concrete construction.

  • They had barrel vaults or groin vaults inside.

  • And you can see also that they were faced with brick,

  • and they were faced with brick, as we discussed,

  • that was exposed; the idea of brick being

  • attractive in its own right, a fabulously beautiful facing,

  • that they take advantage of in the second century A.D.,

  • and decide not to stucco it over, as you can see so well

  • here.

  • The doorways into those tombs, surrounded by travertine jambs

  • and lintels, the inscription in the center,

  • the small slit windows, and then a pediment at the top.

  • We saw, when we looked at funerary architecture in the age

  • of Augustus, for example, that is was very varied;

  • very varied.

  • Tombs in the shape of pyramids, in the shape of circular tombs.

  • Tombs that made reference to bakeries, like the Tomb of the

  • Baker Eurysaces.

  • There is still a certain amount of variety in tomb architecture

  • in the second century A.D., but they tend to hone in on one

  • type in particular, and that type is the so-called

  • house tomb type; which is exactly what we see

  • here, a tomb that is rectangular in shape, for the most part,

  • boxlike, and does resemble, very closely,

  • a house; this close relationship that

  • we've talked about so many times this semester between houses of

  • the living and houses of the dead.

  • So we looked at those last time.

  • And where I want to begin today is just to demonstrate to you

  • that these same kinds of house tombs that we see in Ostia and

  • Isola Sacra, in the second century A.D.,

  • we also see in Rome.

  • And in some cases they are commissioned by individuals of

  • comparable social status, to those in Ostia,

  • but sometimes they are commissioned by the most elite.

  • And I'd like to begin with an example of a similar tomb

  • commissioned by the most elite.

  • This is the so-called Tomb of Annia Regilla,

  • in Rome.

  • It was put up on the famous via Appia, or the Appian Way.

  • It dates to around A.D. 161.

  • In this case we know who the commissioner was,

  • and I can show you what he looked like as well.

  • You see him here, on the right-hand side of the

  • screen.

  • He was a man by the name of Herodes Atticus;

  • I've put his name on the Monument List for you,

  • Herodes Atticus.

  • Herodes Atticus was actually a Greek.

  • He was Athenian, from the Greek part of the

  • Empire.

  • He lived in Athens, for the most part,

  • and he commissioned a very famous music hall,

  • an odeon, which still survives.

  • You can see it over here.

  • It's without its roof today, but it was originally one of

  • these roofed music halls, an odeon.

  • It is located on the slope of the Acropolis in Athens;

  • the Acropolis that of course we know primarily for its great

  • architectural feats of the fifth century B.C.

  • in Greece.

  • This is the Roman building, put up by Herodes in the second

  • century, and we see it on the slope of the Acropolis,

  • very well preserved.

  • In modern times its greatest fame is the fact that Yanni

  • performed his "Live at the Acropolis"

  • concert at the Odeon of Herodes Atticus.

  • And even if you don't like Yanni, it's actually quite an

  • interesting concert to view-- and one can view it in video

  • and so on-- because it does take such

  • wonderful advantage of this extraordinary ancient structure,

  • as Yanni presents his music.

  • At any rate, at one point Herodes Atticus,

  • who had a lot of connections, not only in Athens but around

  • the Empire, at one point,

  • through those connections, he gets himself appointed a

  • senator in Rome, and in order to take up that

  • position he needs to leave Athens behind and go spend some

  • time in Rome, and he and his wife,

  • Annia Regilla, set up house in Rome.

  • Annia Regilla, unfortunately,

  • dies in Rome, and he needs to bury her,

  • and he decides to bury her in Rome,

  • instead of in Athens, and he builds for her a tomb on

  • the Appian Way, on the Via Appia,

  • in around 161 A.D.; that's the date that we believe

  • she died.

  • And we see a view of that tomb here.

  • What we're looking at--and you probably recognize this already

  • because we've looked at a number of models from this museum of

  • casts in Rome, the Museo della Civiltà

  • Romana, in EUR in Rome.

  • And I show you two views of this model of the Tomb of Annia

  • Regilla; one that we see from the front

  • and another that we see from, if we're facing the monument,

  • the left side of the tomb.

  • And these are extremely helpful, because they give us a

  • very good sense of what we are dealing with here.

  • It is clear that we are dealing with a tomb type that is not

  • that different from what we saw in Ostia;

  • although this looks more like a temple than it looks like a

  • house.

  • And you can see that right off.

  • It looks exactly like a typical Roman temple.

  • We see that it is on a high podium;

  • it has a deep porch; it has freestanding columns in

  • that porch; it has a single staircase on

  • the front of the structure; has a façade orientation;

  • then an entranceway into the structure.

  • It also has freestanding columns that support a pediment.

  • So if I were to show you this, and not identify it and say to

  • you: "What kind of a building is this?"

  • I'm sure you would have said it was a temple;

  • and you would've been right in the sense that it looks most

  • like a temple.

  • But it is a tomb in the form of a temple, as you can well see

  • here.

  • Looking on the side of the monument, you can also see those

  • same features that I've just described.

  • And while we are looking at this view--

  • because I'm not going to bring it back--

  • I want to point out one detail that will loom large as we look

  • further at this structure.

  • You will see on the left side of the tomb that the architect

  • has created, has kind of scalloped out the

  • side on either side, creating niches,