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(applause)
Good afternoon
My name is Christina Paxson,
I'm the president of Brown University
and it is my very great plesaure
to welcome you
to the Stephen A. Ogden Jr.
Memorial lecture on international affairs.
For almost half a century
the Ogden lecture series
has brought presidents,
prime ministers, ambassadors, senators,
and at least one king
to Providence for presentations
that have been among the most distinguished
guest lectures Brown has offered,
all of them open to the public.
Stephen Ogden was a member
of the Brown Class of 1960,
a student of foreign affairs
who dreamed of promoting international peace
through a career in international relations,
a dream that is shared today
by so many college and university students.
Stephen did not live to realize his dreams.
Sadly, he died in 1963
of injuries sustained in an auto accident
during his junior year.
The Ogden family established this lecture series
as a memorial to Stephen
and as an encouragement
to everyone who shares his dream
of international peace.
The university is deeply grateful
to the Ogden family for its creative vision
and generosity,
and we are pleased that Stephen's sister Peggy
has joined us for this afternoon's presentation.
I can't see you, but thank you, Peg.
I know you're there.
(applause)]]>
Today, we have a rare opportunity.
We have with us a world leader
who commands neither an army or a navy,
who does not seek to tip the balance of trade
or gain an economic advantage,
who works to resolve, not to exploit,
the ideological, cultural, religious, and political
differences that keep people and nations apart.
He has described himself
as a simple Buddhist monk,
yet his message of peace
is the product of a profound
and continuing life's work.
Born to a farming family
in a small village in north-eastern Tibet
and recognized as the reincarnation
of the thirteenth Dalai Lama
when he was only two years old,
His Holiness followed a different path:
of study, reflection,
of compassion, and of learning.
He began a rigorous monastic
education when he was six years old,
emerging seventeen years later
at the highest level of achievement
in Buddhist philosophy.
He studied art, culture,
music, poetry, history, logic,
and Buddhist philosohpy.
His interests, however are much more extensive,
including his sustained dialogue
with scientists and theorists
in astrophysics, behavioral science,
neurobiology, and quantum mechanics.
In his 2005 book,
The Universe in a Single Atom: The Convergence of Science and Spirituality]]>
he wrote,
"The great benefit of science
is that it can contribute tremendously
to the alleviation of suffering at the physical level,
but it is only through the cultivation
of the qualities of the human heart
and the transformation of our attitudes
that we can begin to address
and overcome our mental suffering.
We need both
since the alleviation of suffering
must take place at both the physical
and psychological levels.
Although his training was monastic,
His Holiness was called to public life
in the spiritual leadership of the Tibetan people
in 1950, when he was in his mid teens.
He has carried his message
of nonviolence to more than sixty nations
on six continents.
He's addressed United Nations,
Parliament, members of the U.S. Congress,
and the governments of many nations.
He has reached out to
worldwide religious leaders,
always advocating for nonviolent solutions
even in the face
of unspeakable aggression and oppression.
The world,
not always attentive and sometimes dismissive
of peacemakers, has hurt him.
He's the 1989 Nobel Laureate for Peace,
and in March of this year,
he was awarded the Templeton prize,
perhaps the highest honor for a religious leader.
His tireless travels,
his seventy-two books,
and his presentations have invited the public to stop,
to listen,
and to consider the vast potential of a peaceful approach.
And so he comes to us today,
here in Providence, Rhode Island,
and it is my great delight to welcome to Providence
and to present to you
His Holiness, the 14th Dalai Lama.
(applause)]]>
(laughter, applause)]]>
Brothers
and sisters,
and certainly
respected
president
of the famous university,
so indeed I am very
happy, and it's a great honor
to speak
to such a big gathering,
and also I think most of you
seem, I think,
younger generation. Students, a younger generation.
Firstly,
I want to show you
my real face, like that.
(laughter)]]>
With this hat,
you cannot see this baldness.
(laughter)]]>
And actually,
from here,
two sides,
more white hair,
see, growing.
This hair, on this side,
hair itself, less and less and less.
So, sometimes,
something like competition. This side say,
(audience laughs)]]>
"Oh, no longer need hair."
And these two sides say,
"Oh, need hair,
but white."
(laughter, applause)]]>
So now,
in order to see
the audience face
more clearly,
this kind of hat is very helpful.
Very helpful, thank you.
Although this visit
seems like the first time,
but,
whenever I meet people,
I always feel
we know each other
because
we are same human being.
Mentally,
emotionally,
physically,
we are the same.
So from my own experience,
from my own sort of feeling,
I easily understand
what kind of
sort of emotions, what kind of mind
what kind of desire
in these people in the room, in their mind.
And the most important
everyone wants-
everyone want
happy life.
No one
loves suffering.
No one loves problems.
Even animals
want
happy life.
And because of that sort of desire,
by nature,
we all
have desire to achieve happy life.
Therefore,
everyone,
including animals,
have a right
to achieve
happy life.
And everyone has the right to overcome
problems, or disturbances.
So that,
very much live with peace,
even animals,
peaceful atmosphere,
they feel
relaxed.
Happy.
Some disturbances come,
then they become tense.
More stress. Human beings also!
So peace itself,
not something secret.
But we want, we need that peace,
because we want happy life.
Do not want suffering.
So violence
always brings fear.
Fear
increases tension,
stress,
frustration.
Then that
usually, you see, creates violence.
So violence
often creates more violence.
So therefore,
reality- the reality is,
we want happy life.
Happiness
very much lived with peace.
So our emotional
[...] narrow-minded views
when we face some sort of problems.
We feel,
"Oh, use force
and destroy that.
That
gains
victory,
our long-lasting happiness."
This is wrong.
That kind of attitude is wrong.
So then,
I think
I am
a person
whose age
now over seventy-seven
yeas old.
Almost
my whole life
living in
some kind of
violent world.
I was born
1935.
Then soon after-
then already, I think, some violence, some sort of invasion
in China,
some problems, violence,
already started.
Then, soon- and then, Nazi power, also,
growing.
So then,
soon after,
Second World War.
Then,
Korean War.
Vietnam War.
And also including
a lot of, sort of-
civil wars, or some disturbances.
translator: Regional wars.]]>
Regional wars.
So when
I look back
to a major portion of my life
-- that means
the 20th century,
since 19- 960- no, no, 1935.
That century,
sadly, become central bloodshed.
I saw immense violence,
and some of great achievement from scientific research work
also done for violence.
The atomic bomb.
So actually,
two
atom bombs
dropped
in Japan.
One
Hiroshima, one Nagasaki.
I had
some opportunity to visit these two places.
And my first- I think, first or second visit,
at Japan,
one occassion, actually I met
some sort of victims-
translator: Survivors.]]>
survivors
of nuclear bomb.
Really terrible.
Saw the
immense violence.
If
create better world,
then you may say, "Oh, that immense violence
produced some good thing.
So,
can justify that."
That's not the case.
Beginning of this 21st century,
some sort of location,
some violence here and there,
these also
I think, symptom
of the 20th century's mistake
or negligence.
And including this
now-
(speaks with translator)]]>
Terrorism, yes, terrorism.
This is also a symptom
of the last century's
negligence or some mistakes.
So therefore,
now, we have to think
seriously
how to build
more peaceful world.
This 21st century
should be
peaceful century
and peace means-
does not mean
no longer
any problem.
Problem?
Always going to be there.
I think, frankly speaking,
so long we human beings
remain on this planet,
some kind of problems always happen.
(laughter)]]>
Because the problems start
from here,
too much-
(speaks with translator)]]>
expectation, too much sort of ambition,
like that.
And
this
too much sort of expectation,
ambition,
combined with
extreme self-centered
blindness, blindness --
these two things combined, they're trouble.
Bound to happen.
So therefore,
I think-
(speaks with translator)]]>
Oh. Mayan-
Mayan civilization,
some my friends told me
according to their civilization,
translator: Their calendar. According to their calendar.]]>
2012 is the end of the world.
Now already,
October.
(laughter)]]>
And world still remains here.
(laughter)]]>
If world
end,
anyway, very sad.
Frightened.
Anyway, good! No longer problems now!
(laughter)]]>
So therefore,
so long we human beings
with different interests,
different concepts, different views,
the source of
problem
remain.
So then what to do?
Consider
others' view,
this view of
human being.
Others' interest,
also interest of the human being.
We are part of humanity.
So yeah,
once we accept,
their problem is my problem,
their happiness is my happiness,
several human beings happy.
Particularly, I get maximum benefit.
Several human beings
some trouble.
How I can escape from that?
Because we are socially intimate.
Secondly, today's world,
heavily interdependent--
economies, environment, and many others--
heavily interdependent.
Therefore, something happened there.
Repurcussion reached your own side.
So therefore, for our own interests,
for our own individual interests,
we have to look
at the interests of others.
So,
so that is the
basis of development of
proper, meaningful dialogue.
One should respect others' view,
others' right, others' interest.
Then, about conflict,
about danger,
and danger will start,
talk.
If something happens,
you will suffer,
I will suffer--
no benefit.
So we have to find
a way to solve this
miserable solution. That's the only way.
That's the dialogue.
So therefore,
I usually describe, this twenty-first century
should be century of dialogue.
So now,
here, I want to
to address mainly the youth.
Now, I often ask age.
Out here,
those people
whose age below 30
please raise hand.
Good.
Now, below 20.
And below 15?
So anyway,
those people--I usually describe
those people whose age
below 30, 20, 15--
these people are
generation of twenty-first century.
Those people
are more the same age,
my age
70,
60,
50,
we are generation of twentieth century.
So our century: gone.
(laughter)]]>
Now, we are ready to say bye-bye.
So now this twenty-first century,
only twelve years,
almost twelve years passed.
Over
80 years yet to come.
So,
past, present, future.
Past is past.
Only memory.
Of course, we can learn
some experience from the past,
but otherwise, already gone.
Nothing--we cannot change that.
Some totalitarian regions
change past history.
That is,
I think,
a regional problem.
Past is past, whether good or bad,
already happened.
Now important is future.
Future still in our hand,
whether we see future
more
happier one
or troubled one,
still in our hand,
mainly the hand of twenty-first century--
generation of twenty-first century.
So now,
I always urging, or request,
the generation
who belongs
to the twenty-first century.
Now please think
more seriously
and try to look
different angle
different sort of way.
Should not take for granted
how, up to now,
we lead this kind of sort of thinking
that will, sort of, a problem,
that will go on like that.
That, I think, a mistake.
The reality:
changed, much changed
and year by year still changing.
So, in order to carry
realistic sort of approach,
our perception
must be realistic,
and in order to carry realistic approach,
we must have full knowledge about reality.
We have to act according new reality.
Reality, change.
Our perception remains still always.
Then, this gap--
reality and our perception--
become bigger, bigger, bigger.
Then, all our, sort of, effort
will not achieve satisfactory result
because our efforts become unrealistic.
Therefore, younger generation,
think more seriously,
and should not, sort of, concentrate
your own, sort of, family, your own community,
your own city, or even your own nation.
You must look beyond.
You must look entire--
entire world.
Some scientists very busy
to study about Mars--
moons, Mars.
Of course, very interesting.
But firstly, we should look at our troubled world.
So, let them investigate
what is the age of these things.
From there,
we may learn
how began this world, this planet,
and how it will change.
How it will end, this world.
These also interesting,
but we are, sort of, immediate
life dependent on this blue planet.
So you have to look seriously
world as one entity
including environment.
You must pay serious attention
about environmental issue.
This is the question of our survival.
Then, also,
on a global, even national level,
this gap, rich and poor,
this also source of problem.
Not only morally wrong
but practically also a source of problem.
We have to think seriously.
This gap, rich and poor.
One time, in Washington,
when I give some sort of talk,
I mentioned
that Washington,
the richest, sort of, nation's capital,
consumption level very high.
Capital of the entire nation,
but suburbs of Washington
there are many poor people
in these area,
sometimes, people say, unsafe area.
Who created that unsafe?
From birth? No.
Their economic condition,
their life:
poor, difficult.
Therefore, some frustration,
as I mentioned earlier, frustration
then creates violence.
So therefore,
I say we have to look seriously,
how to reduce this gap, rich and the poor?
So these two things,
I really feel very, very important
in order to build
happy century--
twenty-first century.
So main responsibility
on younger peoples' shoulder,
not my shoulder
(laughter)]]>
We, a generation who belongs to the twentieth century
now, we--I say, the time come--relax
and watching these young people
whether they really care seriously or not,
we are just watching you.
So main responsibility lying on your shoulder,
so think.
Now here, some people say,
some people may feel
a problem. Immense.
So, one individual cannot do much,
just something like big wave--
one person,
So as if you are being swept away
by a huge wave,
one individual cannot really rise
above that tide.
Should not feel that kind of thing.
I think firstly,
judging events in twentieth century,
it seems quite clear.
Early part of twentieth century,
later part of twentieth century,
I think, among the changes,
many of them very positive,
very hopeful.
I think firstly,
up to 1960-70,
the threat of nuclear holocaust
really there
because two blocks
ready to use nuclear weapons.
But that, gone.
And I think the very factor
which is remove Berlin Wall
not by force,
but by popular movement,
and Soviet Union,
East Block, changed,
mainly
their own people's
peaceful movement.
Saw many ideas, in the Philippines,
one time, Marco, totalitarian dictator
that also disappear
because of their own popular movement
and Chile, also like that.
So therefore,
within the same century,
you see the big change,
now later part of twentieth century,
I think peace,
genuine peace on, at least,
European continent.
I think Kosovo or something,
otherwise I think, comparatively, peace.
During Cold War,
surface, some peace there,
but that peace
not genuine peace.
That kind of peace out of fear.
That is not genuine peace.
After Berlin Wall collapsed,
the Soviet sort of empire changed.
Then,
we see genuine peace,
eventually, now, come.
I think in 1950-60s,
nobody expected that kind of change,
one thing.
Second, another thing:
environment issue.
In early part of twentieth century,
I think nobody
have some kind of sort of
sense of concern or awareness,
the importance of ecology.
Nobody feel we also have the responsibility
to take care of our planet.
Later part of twentieth century,
even political party,
so-called Green Party,
in many countries,
originally,
they were very much concerned about ecology,
so, on the basis of ecological concern,
they established a new political party.
Nowadays, I don't know.
Some of these parties,
now, they also now involve
their own sort of interests
or party politics like that, I don't know.
But originally like that.
So sometimes,
I sort of jokingly,
when I meet some of the
Green Party's
sort of members or politicians,
so sometimes I jokingly tell them--
these people, very supportive of our cause--
so sometimes I tell them,
If I join
any political party,
I will join Green Party.
These are, I think, a sign of progress
in our human mind or knowledge.
One thing.
Then, another thing:
science and spirituality--
in the past, completely something separate.
Now, like in quantum physics,
we see these
shows, importance of our subject--
subjects of perception or subject sight.
So meantime,
some job scientists,
now they
feel, begin to feel.
We cannot treat human being
as a mission,
but we must pay more attention
about human emotions,
human mind,
particularly in the medical science.
Now they really are now talking
much about human emotions.
For preventive measure,
illness, peaceful mind,
also, sort of positivity, optimism,
mental attitude is very essential.
Then,
even you get some illness,
the recover:
again, optimistic attitude,
the strong sort of mental attitude,
very important
for recover.
So, for these reasons,
now, some scientists really showing interest,
cultivate
human mind,
compassion,
love, these things.
So actually some universities,
mainly in this country,
and also some
some, I think, other countries also,
like Europe and also India
you see carrying some kind of
experimental project.
For example,
some Emory University,
I think mainly Emory University
and so on, some university,
in the last few years,
they carry some sort of experiment,
some sort of project,
and some people
change
two weeks, three weeks,
certain kind of mindfulness,
and also
learn about compassion
or practice of compassion.
Before they start,
they carry
examination, their physical condition--
blood pressure,
amount of stress,
all these things they examine.
Then after
two, three weeks,
again check--
blood pressure: reduced.
Amount of stress: also reduced.
As a result, person become much happier,
and their attitude
towards other sort of friends
much more healthy.
So these things now
in scientific research field
now study about emotion,
how to deal with these emotions.
That, I think,
one sort of big change, I feel.
So, one time,
in 1996,
I had a sort of priviledge.
The Queen Mother of England,
her own age 96,
So I--
since my childhood,
as a result of seeing her picture
and her husband,
King George VI.
So I had some sort of admiration.
So I had the audience
with the Queen Mother.
A very nice--
very nice lady.
So when I--
when we sat down,
then, I asked,
Since you observed
almost whole twentieth century,
so, according to your experience,
is the world becoming
better or worse or same?
Without hesitation,
immediately,
she responded me, Better.
Then, she put some reasons.
When she was young,
nobody talks about human right
or right of self-determination.
Nowadays,
human right and right of self-determination,
these are universal concept
or universal values.
So she mentioned that.
So therefore,
there are a lot of sort of
example,
human thinking, human behavior
through our own difficult experiences,
and eventually, our mind become more mature.
Then,
I think one sort of, another important thing is,
early part of twentieth century,
when nation declare war
on their so-called enemy,
every citizen of the country,
without any question,
they proudly joined war effort.
Since the Vietnam War,
that kind of situation changed.
Look
at early part of this century,
Iraq War about to start--
millions of people
against war,
from Australia
and up to Europe and the United States,
up to the United States.
So these are clear signs
of desire for peace,
now really--
not just a slogan,
but real desire.
Strong like that.
So then, another thing:
I think including scientists,
they also now showing interest
about our inner value
in order to build
happy person, happy family,
happy society, or healthy body.
Other hand,
among the fringe, materially,
the fringe of society,
now people begin to feel
limitation of material value.
In the past,
material superficiality,
material value,
is the ultimate source of happiness,
so all our hopes put on that.
Actually, the very education system
oriented about material value.
Now, many educationists,
many sort of rich people,
now they begin to feel
material values, there is a limitation.
More material, sort of success,
more greed,
that brings
too much, sort of extreme competition,
and that brings suspicion,
that brings distrust,
and, though some of these sort of
very successful sort of people,
deep inside, lonely feeling
because
too much
self-centered attitude,
so they cannot trust people,
so finally, lonely feeling.
So that also, I think, big change:
now, more and more people,
including scientists,
now showing
deeper sort of human reality
that is human mind, human emotion.
So where does spirituality
deal with emotions, these things?
So, modern science
and spirituality
also seem to come closer and closer.
These are,
I think,
these events I think really
shows
our hope.
We are becoming more mature.
So now, make attempt,
use our intelligence
a more holistic way,
try to find
new way for approach
certainly
this century can be
more peaceful,
more pleasant,
I think actually
we can
develop this century
a century of compassion.
Compassionate century.
We can do that.
Now, compassion,
love,
affection.
Sometimes the people consider these are religious practices.
Now here we must make distinction.
All religious tradition,
their main message, main practice,
yes, practice love, compassion
forgiveness, tolerance,
certain discipline, contentment, all these things.
They are
irrespective of what philosophical differences.
But at the same time,
I think
there are a large number of people
out of seven billion human beings
who have not much interest about
religious faith.
So then these people usually-
"Oh, practice of love, compassion, forgiveness, these are religious practices."
So since they have no interest about religion,
they also completely ignore about these values.
That's a mistake.
Whether it's a religion or not, that's up to the individual.
You can remain
good human being
without religious faith.
It's possible!
We've noticed,
however,
these people,
if you examine
like some of the scientists,
athiests,
no religious belief,
but through their own investigation,
now they realize
more warmheartedness is immense
helpful
for health,
for happy family,
like that. So therefore,
we must find
a way
to promote these
values,
not relying on religion.
That, I usually call
secular way
approach.
These values
basically biological factor,
not religious belief.
Even animal --
dogs, cats,
some birds -- they also have this
some ability
of limited
altruism
through their own surrounding
friend, like that.
So these are biological factor
because it need
for their own survival,
and particularly social animals,
for their
survival, cooperation is very essential.
Cooperation
based on
sense of community like that,
and love
like that.
So therefore
those people
who have not much interest about religion,
they should not neglect about these inner values.
So,
the approach to promote these things
should be secular way,
and then I must sort of make clear:
in the West,
when the word secularism comes-
you know, some people feel
that the secularism means
a little sort of negative towards religion.
That's
one sort of understanding.
According India,
secularism-
they understand,
they respect all religions,
no preference,
this religion or that religion,
equally respect.
And then also
respect
non-believer.
I think that's very wise.
India,
when independent country-
translator: Became independent.]]>
came to independent nation,
their constitution
based on secularism
because the reality
already that country
multi-religious nation.
Multi-culture,
multi-linguistic,
so mainly, multi-religious society. Therefore,
their constitution
developed
on the basis of secularism.
So all those
Indian sort of father- nation's father
translator: The founding fathers.]]>
founding fathers
is who created this
secularism
or India's duteous constitution, based on secularism.
These people, individually very very religious-minded people,
like Mahatma Gandhi,
the first president of India,
Rajendra Prasad,
and also the Dr. Ambedkar,
all these
lawyers,
and the
members of the committee
who make this constitution,
like that. So therefore,
the secularism,
when I use 'secularism',
means, according to that understanding,
respect all religions,
and including non-believer.
So,
I usually make an effort
to promote human value
through secular approach.
So these are-
So then,
the challenge
in our world:
population increasing,
lifestyle increasing.
Now, as I mentioned earlier,
this huge gap rich and the poor,
the poorer section of people,
global level or national level,
we have to
lift
their living standard.
So,
their consumsery
translator: Consumers, consumption.]]>
or their lifestyle
will change.
So that also usually
create
more challenges.
So the other day,
in- was it, M.I.-
translator: MIT.]]>
MIT,
this is
a discussion, a panel discussion,
with some scientists
in particular field.
Really expert
in their presentation.
The different fields: ecology, economy,
(speaks with translator)]]>
food, and many many fields.
Their presentation really
truly shows their expertise in this field.
So, every field,
they create- I mean, they mentioned
the challenges.
Immense challenges!
Also, you see, they
mentioned,
There is possibility to work.
All this related ultimately
to human will.
That will also is a human-
sort of central concern of well-being of the world.
Of other. Of other?
translator: Of others.]]>
So,
after all, all human activities,
you see,
whether
constructive or destructive
ultimately lead with motivation.
Every action
movtivated by
sense of concern of others' well-being,
then all action
can really become
constructive action.
Every action,
any action,
motivated by extreme self-centered selfish motivation
don't care about others.
Worse, exploit others.
Bully others,
cheating others,
telling lies others,
or killing others.
So,
these-
any actions
out of
negative motivation,
then,
every action become
destructive action.
So we have to think more about motivation here.
Now here,
how can
how can sort of train
these
moral principle
secular way?
Not from teaching,
not from church,
not from temple,
but from
educational field.
From kindergarten,
up to university level.
We must pay more attention
educate people or make awareness:
the ultimate source of happiness,
ultimate source of successful life,
is deep in here
so that
existing education
sort of institution,
please pay more attention.
The president,
and teachers,
professors,
please think more
and you, yourself, also is worthwhile to carry some
translator: Experiment.]]>
further sort of experiment
or investigation.
That I think
very important.
Then those,
the generation who belongs to the first century,
you all, you also, you see,
still think more, not only 'Money, money,'
or successful in the terms of money
not sufficient.
Successful
very much related with
inner peace.
Also, you see, very important
so think
both
material successful, material values,
translator: Material success.]]>
material success,
and also, inner peace.
These two things
should keep in your mind.
So that's for my talk,
now some questions.
Oh, sorry.
(applause)]]>
Thank you, Your Holiness,
for sharing so much of your time
and wisdom with us today.
It's just been a great honor to have you here
in Providence, and your words are inspirational.
We do have some time for questions,
and to help facilitate this,
we have actually videotaped some questions
in advance from members from our audience,
and they will appear on screens around the room.
These are from students and faculty
from Brown and students from local high schools.
And so while we may not have time
to get to all of the questions we videotaped,
many thanks to those of you
who provided us with questions.
And I actually have the questions written down
in case it doesn't work.
Are we good?
Okay?
Okay. What? New one.
Now two.
(laughter)]]>
Okay.
So let's give this a shot.
Our first question is from
Tibetan student Lobsang Lama.
Lobsang is studying electrical engineering
and economics at Brown.
So, let's see if it plays.
Tashi delek, and greetings, Your Holiness.]]>
My name is Lobsang Lama,
and I'm a member of the Class of 2014.
My question is,
How should the younger generations of today
contribute and participate
towards building global peace?
I think I already answered that.
(laughter and applause)]]>
So,
no use to repeat.
Too much repetition.
Audience may feel boring.
(laughter)]]>
Next.
(laughter)]]>
Next? Okay.
Our next question is
from Aoua Coumbassa,
a senior at Pawtucket's Tolman High School.
Aoua has a 4.0 GPA,
plays various sports,
and juggles two jobs outside of school.
Hello, Your Holiness.
My name is Aoua Coumbassa,
and I am a senior at Tolman High School
in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
If our purpose in life is to be happy,
then why is it that certain individuals' happiness
causes pain for others?
Oh, I think, firstly,
I always believe,
very purpose of our life, our existence,
for happiness,
reason.
Our life--
no guarantee,
happy life.
But,
our life depend on hope.
Hope means
something good.
Once
individual
completely lost hope,
then, that mental attitude itself
shorten our life.
Then, worst case:
suicide, also happen.
And also less hope.
And then,
rely on drugs.
Alcohol.
These almost have
something like suicide.
Ruin your own body,
ruin your own sharp intelligence, like that.
So, very purpose of our life
is happy life.
There is no question.
Then,
as I mentioned earlier,
usually,
self-centered attitude,
with that motivation,
seeking your own, sort of, joyful
or happy life,
regardless consequence on other.
That sometimes causing
some problem, other.
But actually,
that kind of, sort of, self-charishing
is foolish.
I usually is telling,
We are selfish.
That means, take care oneself.
That is very important.
Without sort of feeling,
taking care oneself,
how can extend
that feeling of care of other?
Some people, self-hatred there.
Such people,
impossible to extend
love and compassion to others.
So therefore,
the taking care oneself
is very right and very, sort of, important.
But,
sort of anyway,
selfish sort of attitude--
that should be
combined with
awareness,
combined with wisdom.
So, that, I should call, that kind of selfish is
wise selfish.
Just think oneself,
concern oneself,
don't care about other,
even exploit other, harming other,
that kind of selfish is
foolish selfish.
Long run, self-destruction.
So therefore,
the positive,
wise sort of selfish
is--
should never create problem other,
but rather bring some
some happiness,
some benefit to other.
So there is my answer.
Do you agree, that?
(laughter and applause)]]>
Next question.
Thank you very much.
The next question is from Elizabeth Hoover,
assistant professor at Brown,
where she teaches Native American studies courses.
Greetings, Your Holiness.
I'm Professor Elizabeth Hoover.
I'm a descendent of the Mohawk and Micmac
tribes of upstate New York and Eastern Canada.
I traveled to Tibet in 2010,
and I witnessed your people there
being treated by the Chinese
much in the same way that
our indigenous people here in the Americas
have been treated.
I was wondering, from the perspective
of an indigenous person
who has been separated from your homeland,
what advice do you give to your own people,
who are currently suffering
from the forced changes to their culture,
and how would you advise native people here,
who are working to recover
from the same experiences?
Right from the beginning,
when we become
refugee,
and I think even further,
1949, '50,
the new situation develop,
we urging Tibetan unity
and importance of our own
culture, heritage.
We have our own language,
our own script.
It is completely independent
from Chinese script
and Indian script,
although originally,
Tibetan script
copied, based on
some of the Indian, sort of, writing system.
But itself, completely, sort of, independence.
Then, after '59,
we become refugees.
Our first priority is
education,
modern education,
and that modern education
also is not just one-sided modern education,
but including Tibetan traditional education,
including language and Buddhist philosophy,
these things.
So therefore,
'59, we came to India,
become refugee.
Within the year,
we start school
for education.
That school,
since we want to
develop or produce Tibetan student,
so both fields,
traditional education
and modern education.
So, we asked Indian government,
We want separate Tibetan school.
Then, President Neruda, he--
the Indian Prime Minister--
he fully supported that,
so we establish separate Tibetan school,
and government of India settled
a society for Tibetan school,
like that.
So we always say,
Importance of preservation of our own--
our own identity.
The most important part of identity
is our language,
our script,
and our culture.
So, our, sort of, main criticism
to the Chinese communist authorities in Tibet:
That sometimes, sadly,
they deliberately,
to suppress
Tibetan unique sort of culture,
including sometimes, including
our language, also they
suppress, like that.
Now,
the outside world--
I had number of occasions
meeting with
indigenous people
in New Zealand, Australia,
Taiwan,
Okinawa,
Hawaii,
and then
here, America, and Europe,
South America.
So whenever I
meet these people,
firstly I told them,
nowadays, unlike past,
the world
starting to recognize
each individual--
each individual communities,
their own language, their own culture,
there's something really worthwhile to preserve.
So new opportunity comes.
So people
have every right
to carry all sorts of
work for preservation of their own
culture, their own language,
their own identity.
Meantime, I always ask them,
do you have some, your own,
writing system?
Many of them say,
No writing system.
Then, I urging them,
You should invent
one sort of writing.
Preservation--effective preservation--
long run, rely on oral--
tradition,
not sufficient,
not secure.
And then, I notice,
some native people,
particularly in Latin America,
in order to preserve their own culture,
their own identity,
they prefer remain isolated.
That, I feel, is a mistake.
Like the Maori
in New Zealand:
they thoroughly educated,
with the rest of New Zealand people.
Meantime,
they speak their own language, their own--
they practice their own traditions.
And also,
northern part of Scandinavian countries,
the local,
through modern education,
like Norway,
the northern part of Norway,
the sunny land.
They thoroughly educated,
with normal Norwegian people,
and meantime, they preserve
their own identity,
their own dress,
their own songs, like that.
So that is the proper way.
Through that way--
through modern education,
preserve their own culture,
their own language or identity,
then, more effective.
Isolate, almost like suicide.
No use.
So now, American
Native, sort of, Indians.
Many occasion--
many places I met--
again, sometimes I ask the population.
They say--
some cases, they say,
2,000, 3,000.
That, I think,
too small, difficult.
So I think,
The more similar, sort of,
translator: the tribes that share greater similarities ]]>
should create some sort of writing system
then more cooperative way
and preservation of their own identity,
their own language.
One thing in Australian indigenous people,
on one occasion, as I met some,
and I told and asked when they introduced themselves,
they said their Christian names or English names,
and I suggested at least an individual name
should be in a native language,
so that the individual can be himself or herself
mentioned name is, reminds you,
you are tribes or community.
So some occasion I suggested like that.
So that also I think can be helpful
to remind the individual,
I belong to this tribe or that tribe.
So that's my view.
Then perhaps I think a little funny thing.
I think at least 15-20 years ago,
one occasion in Frankfurt in Germany,
there was one meeting of different people,
indigenous people,
also some Germans there, some organization,
so one representative
from one American indigenous community
one representative.
He read one long speech or written speech,
message from his own, I think,
religious chief (leader).
So that letter is mentioned, he wished
all white people should expel from American continent.
I think that is a little bit extreme.
(laughter)]]>
I think if white people
if you expel them, then these big cities
(laughter)]]>
No use.
I think we'll suffer global economy immensely.
So there's a little bit too extreme, like that.
(laughter)]]>
Next question?
Thank you. We have time for one more question.
And this question is from medical student
Terra Schaetzel-Hill, and let's hear it.
Good afternoon, your Holiness.
My name is Terra Schaetzel-Hill
and I'm a medical student at the
Warren Alpert Medical School.
In light of the recent events in the Middle East,
hearing news of the violent protests as well as
the anti-American sentiments that have been
sweeping that part of the world,
sometimes feels frightening and alarming.
So my question is, how can we
view and process these events from
a peace-centered perspective?
And how can we cultivate
a peaceful response to the circumstances that seem scary
and threatening?
(translator speaks)]]>
(audience laughs)]]>
This quite-
firstly, I think, quite serious
and also complicated.
Complicated question.
After
September 11th
event
happened,
then,
after one year,
one-
translator: Commemoration.]]>
commemoration
take place in Washington
National Cathedral.
So, somewa- somehow I was there,
at that time,
so they invited me
to participate
in the spiritual sort of ceremony.
Then I expressed
that
due to such mischievous
(speaks to translator)]]>
translator: Actions.]]>
actions,
their background
was Muslim,
so some mischievous
Muslims' behavior
and, with that, generalize
whole Islam
or Muslim community.
That's unfair.
Some mischievous people
in every religious community.
Among the Buddhists, among the Christians,
among the Jews, among the Hindus...
Everywhere!
So this
handful mischievous people's
activities
will not represent
the whole community
or whole, the sort of concept of tradition.
So since then,
I always, you see, defending
Islam. Also it's one of the important world religions!
So- so, you see,
I- because I feel
isolated them.
Then,
(speaks to translator)]]>
translator: Distrust, suspicion.]]>
distrust, or suspicion.
And recently, sometimes, even books
mentioned
clash
Islam
(turns to translator)]]>
translator: Western civilization.]]>
Western civilization.
And these are, I think,
not
I think not based on reality.
In reality,
the Islam world need West.
West need
those
Middle East
(speaks to translator)]]>
Firstly oil, these things,
so, heavily interdependent,
so therefore, firstly,
if you
develop
more
contact,
then people
you see-
(speaks to translator)]]>
Then you see this kind of distrust
will not come or diminish,
so creation somewhat wrong impression.
Is, I think, a mistake.
So I personally also knows
among the Muslim
there are
genuine practitioner- among the genuine Islam practitioner,
wonderful people there,
I know.
So one Muslim, my friend,
you see, he stated,
he say,
the genuine Islam practitioner
must extend love
towards entire creation of Allah.
Any Muslim
who create bloodshed
is reality
no longer
Islam
practitioner.
They say like that.
So there are
many good Muslims there.
So,
we should not generalize,
so we must extend,
reach out,
Muslim world. That's, I think, important.
Then, secondly,
I think further that-
that also, I think-
their side also is much depend on the education.
And environment.
I notice
Muslims
in India,
Muslims in Malaysia,
Muslims in Indonesia,
different!
Same Koran,
same Muslim,
five times prayer,
same!
(speaks to translator)]]>
Ramadan practice is the same! But,
the environment-
because of, due to, different environment,
the Indian Muslims
from their childhood,
they accept
their multireligions
already there.
Recently,
I met one Romanian
who carry some
investigation
or research work
India's religious harmony.
I met in one
Indian state, Rajasthan,
many Muslims there,
so,
one occasion I visit there,
I met that Romanian,
researchers.
He told me
he is surprised
he found
one Muslim village.
Village means at least
few thousand
Muslim population must be there.
So then he found
in that village,
three Hindu families.
Three.
Three Hindu families.
No fear.
Completely safe
among the
bigger Muslim sort of community.
Very friendly.
So therefore,
these Indian Muslim,
they develop that way
so their attitude
very much the harmonious sort of-
(speaks to translator)]]>
translator: Spirit.]]>
spirit.
So like that-
so these
environment makes
differences.
So we,
Muslim world,
traditionally
not much contact with outside world
or Western world.
I think it is not sufficient
in some
(speaks to translator)]]>
technology,
taking oil
on particular area
and not much contact with
rest of the community.
That's not sufficient.
Or,
meeting with some leaders, some kings,
or their families,
that's not sufficient.
I think, educate the field
more..
translator: Interaction, contact.]]>
more interaction, more contact.
I think
that's very very important.
If possible, like
your university,
you should invite some student from
these different Arab countries
and give them education
and training.
I think very very important.
So that's my view.
Then eventually,
otherwise as it is
now with help of modern technology,
sometimes it's unexpected some explosions or
some expected sort of self-
terrorist actions.
That really, you see,
creates some kind of
fear, or uncomfortable sort of things.
So that also quite true.
So but we have to-
(speaks with translator)]]>
make effort
long-term.
So this, after ten-
(speaks with translator)]]>
September 11th event,
as I mentioned,
I expressed many occasion
if you handle
not properly
these problems,
then-
you see, today-
oh, at that time I mentioned, 'Today,
one Bin Laden,
then,
next,
ten Bin Laden,
then hundred Bin Laden,
possible.
So we must
find
non-violent way
approach
and based on
strong,
genuine
spirit of brotherhood, sisterhood,
oneness
of the humanity
on the same planet.
I think we can-
we can reach out
through this way.
So Tibetan and Chinese
after
(speaks with translator)]]>
2008 crisis,
the Chinese government
their hardliners
deliberately created some kind of impression
entire Tibetans are anti-Chinese. Actually not!
So then
immediate after that year,
whenever I visit Europe,
America,
Australia,
some Chinese demonstrations-
demonstrators
always sort of follow.
(laughter)]]>
We always try to reach out
with Chinese community,
whenever I have oppor- we have opportunity
meeting them,
telling them
about truth.
So then,
gradually,
year by year,
these
reduce,
out of sort of understanding
out of sort of
(speaks with translator)
contact like that.
So that-
That much I know.
And beyond that, I don't know
like that.
I'd like everybody to join me in
thanking His Holiness for coming to talk to us today.
(applause)]]>
(applause)]]>
Oh yes.
So I really-
I really enjoy
having this opportunity,
so please think
some of these- my points.
If you feel
some interest,
then think more.
And you yourself,
investigate these things.
And then,
try to share
with more people.
If you feel
these points
not much relevant,
not much interest,
then forget.
(audience laughter)]]>
No problem.
(applause)]]>
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His Holiness the Dalai Lama delivers Ogden Lecture at Brown University

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李承 published on March 13, 2015
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