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  • Prof: Good morning everyone.

  • Augustus founded the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

  • The name says it all: Julio-Claudian,

  • Julio for the Julian side of the family, Julius Caesar and

  • Augustus; the Claudian for the Claudian

  • side of the family.

  • That was Augustus' wife from--her side of the family,

  • excuse me, the Claudian side of the family.

  • And there were four emperors in the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

  • These were Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius,

  • and Nero.

  • Every one of them, all four, made an important

  • contribution to the evolution of Roman architecture,

  • and we'll talk about the contributions of those four

  • today.

  • But we'll also see that the single most important

  • contribution, from the standpoint of Roman

  • architecture, was by Nero,

  • the notorious emperor Nero, which is why I do call this

  • lecture "Notorious Nero and His Amazing Architectural

  • Legacy."

  • An architectural legacy that would have been impossible

  • without some of the earlier concrete constructions that

  • we've already discussed, specifically the

  • frigidaria of Pompeii and also the thermal bath at Baia,

  • which I remind you of here.

  • The so-called Temple of Mercury, we see it again with

  • its dome made out of concrete construction,

  • a view from the exterior.

  • And down here, at the left,

  • a view of the interior of the monument,

  • and I remind you of the way in which is that designed so that

  • light streams through the oculus in the dome,

  • down onto the sides of the wall, creating light effects:

  • a circle that corresponds to the shape of the opening above,

  • and then falling initially on the pool of water that would

  • have been located there, as well as across the walls,

  • which probably would have been--

  • that were certainly stuccoed over--and probably would have

  • been covered with mosaic.

  • So a very spectacular interior indeed,

  • and one again that had an important impact,

  • as we'll see, on the architectural designs of

  • the Roman emperor Nero.

  • I want to begin though with the first of the Julio-Claudian

  • emperors, and that is with Tiberius.

  • And you see a portrait of Tiberius now on the screen,

  • just to give you a sense of what he looked like.

  • Tiberius, again the son of Livia by a former marriage,

  • the elder son of Livia by a former marriage,

  • who becomes emperor of Rome right after Augustus.

  • And the portrait that you see here is a marble portrait of

  • Tiberius that is now in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptothek in

  • Copenhagen.

  • Tiberius was emperor of Rome from 14 to 37 A.D.,

  • and with regard to architecture,

  • he completed projects begun by Augustus.

  • He also was responsible for restoring Republican buildings

  • that had fallen into severe disrepair by his reign,

  • and this included several temples, a basilica,

  • warehouses, and also a theater.

  • Tiberius also initiated some new building projects in Rome.

  • These included a Temple to the Divine Augustus,

  • Temple to Divus Augustus,

  • his divine adoptive father, because Augustus was made a

  • god, as Caesar had been before him,

  • at his death.

  • Tiberius also put up a series of arches to his relatives,

  • and also a camp for the Praetorian Guard.

  • But what we'll see about Tiberius is that his real

  • passion was not the public architecture that Augustus had

  • been so fond of-- think the Forum of Augustus and

  • the Temple of Mars Ultor, or the Ara Pacis Augustae,

  • which were among Augustus' most important building projects.

  • Tiberius was interested instead in private architecture--

  • architecture in a sense for himself and his nearest and

  • dearest-- and he began a palace on the

  • Palatine Hill.

  • He did not think the small, modest House of Augustus,

  • despite the fact that it had those nicely painted walls,

  • he did not think that that befit his own grandeur,

  • and he began a major palace on the Palatine Hill,

  • on the northwest side of the Palatine Hill.

  • And he renovated and built villas elsewhere,

  • outside of Rome, especially on the spectacular

  • Island of Capri.

  • And indeed, during the reign of Augustus,

  • and also the reign of Tiberius, that family,

  • the Augustan and Julio-Claudian family,

  • built twelve villas--count them, twelve villas--

  • on the Island of Capri, one more spectacular than the

  • next.

  • It's worth mentioning, by the way, that Augustus'

  • taste, even in villas, was somewhat more modest than

  • Tiberius.

  • Augustus used to decorate his villa,

  • we are told, with dinosaur bones and things

  • like that, of historical interest,

  • whereas Tiberius spared no expense in introducing every

  • luxury possible into his villas.

  • With regard to the palace on the Palatine Hill,

  • the so-called Domus Tiberiana, I just want to mention it in

  • passing.

  • There's very little that survives of the substructures

  • that Tiberius was responsible for beginning,

  • for that palace.

  • They were made out of concrete construction,

  • and you can see here what's called the Clivus Palatinus,

  • which is a ramp way leading from the Roman Forum,

  • up to the Palatine Hill.

  • And you can see some of the remains of those substructures

  • over here.

  • The ones that we see were probably restored later and may

  • or may not date to the Tiberian period,

  • but they give you some idea of the sort of construction that he

  • began on the Palatine Hill.

  • And I mention this just because we'll see that Caligula and some

  • of the other emperors continued to add to this palace,

  • and then the entire Palatine Hill is redesigned by the

  • emperor Domitian in the late first century A.D.

  • Much more interesting and much more--and there's much more

  • information for us to look at--are the villas on the island

  • of Capri.

  • And I'm going to show you one, the best preserved,

  • from that island, the so-called Villa Jovis:

  • the Villa Jovis, the Villa of Jupiter,

  • which is an interesting name, when you think about it,

  • for a villa for the emperor Tiberius.

  • The Villa Jovis, which was put up sometime in

  • the years in which Tiberius was emperor;

  • that is, from 14 to 37 A.D.

  • It's a spectacular place, beautifully situated.

  • And I'm going to take you there today.

  • Now the only way to get to the island of Capri,

  • which by the way is one of my very favorite places in the

  • world; I don't know how many of you've

  • been there, but it's quite extraordinary--the island of

  • Capri.

  • You can't jet to the Island of Capri,

  • you have to arrive there by boat, and most people take a

  • boat, unless they have a private

  • yacht, but those of us who don't,

  • have to take a boat either from Naples,

  • usually a hydrofoil--although they have larger boats as well--

  • a hydrofoil from Naples or from Positano.

  • And I actually show you--this is a view on the left-hand side

  • of the screen of Positano on the Amalfi Coast.

  • You go down to the beach; there's a place where you can

  • pick up a hydrofoil.

  • It takes a very short time, half an hour or so,

  • less, a little bit less, to get over to the Island of

  • Capri from Positano.

  • So we're sitting on one of those hydrofoils--

  • or at least eight of us are, because that's usually what

  • they fit-- and we're making our way from

  • Positano toward Capri.

  • As you go there, if the weather is good enough,

  • and if the sea is calm enough, they will take you to see the

  • famous grottos, the Green Grotto and also the

  • Blue Grotto.

  • And again I can just give you a little sense here of--in this

  • view--of how blue is blue.

  • I mean, it's really a neon blue, when you go to see the

  • Blue Grotto.

  • It's a spectacular sight and a very special color blue that you

  • really don't see anywhere else in the world.

  • So they'll drive you around in the hydrofoil to see the

  • grottos, and then you eventually get to

  • the dock at Capri, and this is what you see as you

  • get off the boat at the island of Capri: again a very beautiful

  • spot to visit.

  • As you go up, you make your way from the dock

  • up to the funicular.