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  • Prof: Good morning everyone.

  • Back to Rome today, back to Rome,

  • which was beginning to emerge as the world's,

  • or the ancient world's, greatest superpower,

  • an emergence that we're going to see had a profound impact on

  • Roman architecture.

  • And we'll also see that there were a number of men who

  • effected this superstardom for Rome,

  • and they're men that I'm going to talk about with you today.

  • These included Julius Caesar, Pompey the Great,

  • Mark Antony, and Octavian Augustus,

  • especially Octavian Augustus: Augustus,

  • first emperor of Rome, and it's the reason that I have

  • decided to call this lecture today "From Brick to

  • Marble: Augustus Assembles Rome."

  • You see on the left-hand side of the screen a portrait of

  • Julius Caesar.

  • It's a green diabase portrait of Caesar.

  • It's now in Berlin, and I believe actually that it

  • is a portrait that was commissioned by Cleopatra

  • herself.

  • She commissioned it for a building that she and Caesar

  • were putting up in Alexandria, called the Caesareum that

  • honored Caesar, and you can see that he is

  • represented as he was-- it's a quite realistic portrait

  • with the lines and wrinkles, with his receding hairline and

  • so on accentuated in this portrait.

  • On the right hand-side of the screen we see an image of Pompey

  • the Great, a marble portrait that is now in the Ny Carlsberg

  • Glyptotek, in Copenhagen.

  • And a portrait that shows that Pompey the Great very much

  • wanted to ally himself with Alexander the Great,

  • because if you look at his very full head of hair,

  • you can see that he wears it in the center,

  • pushed up in a kind of pompadour, which is a reference

  • to the same kind of upsweep that was worn by Alexander the Great.

  • I want to give you a little bit of information about Caesar,

  • about his life, about some of his

  • accomplishments, because these are going to have

  • an impact on the architecture, on our discussion of the

  • architecture that he commissioned in Rome.

  • We know that Caesar was elected consul, in 59 B.C.

  • He then joined with Pompey the Great, and with a man by the

  • name of Crassus, to form what is known as the

  • First Triumvirate.

  • The result of that First Triumvirate was in part that

  • Caesar received a consulship in Gaul.

  • But despite all good intentions, just a few years

  • later, in 54 B.C., the Triumvirate fell apart.

  • Difficult times were the case in Rome between 53 and 50 B.C.

  • There were food shortages and riots in the city,

  • and the Senate was very concerned that these uprisings

  • would lead to a takeover by the populace of the city.

  • Pompey took charge.

  • He took control of the Senate and he restored order,

  • and his reward for so doing is that the Senate was willing to

  • work with him to try to overthrow his rival,

  • that is, Julius Caesar.

  • Crassus, the other member of the Triumvirate,

  • had since died.

  • But Caesar got the upper hand, at the end of the day,

  • and it was Caesar who defeated Pompey the Great at a very

  • famous battle, the Battle of Pharsalos,

  • which took place in 48 B.C.

  • After the Battle of Pharsalos and his defeat by Julius Caesar,

  • Pompey fled to Egypt where he was murdered,

  • and in fact the Egyptians slit Pompey's head,

  • put it on a plate and presented it to Caesar.

  • Now you'd think Caesar would have been happy about that.

  • He wasn't, because although he was thrilled to have defeated

  • Pompey the Great, he did not like seeing the head

  • of a fellow Roman delivered to him on a plate.

  • Caesar, at that point, despite his victory,

  • what was foremost in his mind was his affair with Cleopatra,

  • and he stayed in Egypt with Cleopatra for a period of time.

  • But in 45 B.C., by 45 B.C., he had returned to

  • Rome.

  • He was acclaimed Dictator in that year,

  • in 45, and after that he pursued fiscal reforms for Rome,

  • and also he commissioned a number of very important public

  • works, and that's where Roman

  • architecture obviously comes into play.

  • Despite the fact that he initiated those reforms and

  • built buildings and built up the city in interesting ways,

  • the aristocrats in Rome considered Caesar a tyrant.

  • They considered him a tyrant because they felt that the

  • influence of Cleopatra had rubbed off too much on him and

  • his ambitions were too monarchical,

  • and the aristocrats encouraged his murder.

  • And he was assassinated, as all of you know,

  • by Cassius and Brutus in the year 44 B.C.,

  • on the Ides of March, and he was divinized by the

  • Senate, he was made a god by the

  • Senate, in the year 42 B.C.

  • In his biography of Julius Caesar,

  • the writer Suetonius, who was a secretary and a

  • biographer to the emperor Hadrian in the second century

  • A.D., Suetonius wrote a biography of

  • the Twelve Caesars, a very famous biography that

  • many of you may know served as the basis for Robert Graves'

  • very well-known Claudius, which also accentuates again

  • the biographies of those first Twelve Caesars.

  • And although Caesar himself was dictator, not emperor,

  • he is the first of the Caesars who is covered by Suetonius.

  • And in Suetonius' biography of Julius Caesar,

  • he tells us about some of these major architectural commissions

  • that Caesar embarked on in Rome.

  • And it's interesting to read about these because we'll see

  • that all of them seem to have been the best and the greatest.

  • And I think one of the explanations for this is the

  • time that Caesar spent in Alexandria, in Egypt,

  • with Cleopatra.

  • She wanted to show him the sites, and in fact they went on

  • a very famous barge trip together,

  • down the Nile, in which she showed him the

  • pyramids and the sphinxes that were there to be seen.

  • And he was extremely impressed by what he saw in Egypt,

  • and decided that one of the most important things that he

  • could do, that he could contribute to

  • posterity vis-à-vis Rome, was to make Rome into a city

  • that was the equal of Alexandria,

  • that had similar large-scale buildings and impressive

  • monuments, the way Alexandria did.

  • So he came back to Rome, he undertook this major

  • building project, and Suetonius tells us that he

  • built-- he wanted to build,

  • he started to build a Temple to Mars that Suetonius describes as

  • the biggest in the world.

  • Why?

  • To compete with the buildings of Alexandria.

  • A vast--not just a theater--a vast theater.

  • Greek and Latin public libraries.

  • We know, of course, that the greatest library in

  • the ancient world at this particular time was the Library

  • at Alexandria.

  • So he wanted libraries in Rome that could compete with the

  • great Library of Alexandria.

  • And he was also particularly interested in engineering

  • marvels.

  • He built, or he began to build, a highway from the Adriatic,

  • across the Apennines, to the Tiber,

  • and then most famously a canal cut through the Isthmus of

  • Corinth.

  • That was, in large part, achieved, and one can still see

  • that canal, if one visits Corinth in Greece today.

  • So he had vast ambitions.

  • But many of these ambitions were cut short by his

  • assassination in 44 B.C.

  • He was not able to achieve architecturally all that he had

  • hoped.

  • One building that he was able to complete, or almost complete,

  • was a forum in Rome.

  • The Forum Iulium, I-u-l-i-u-m,

  • which is after his family name Iulius.

  • The Forum Iulium, or as we usually call it the

  • Forum of Julius Caesar in Rome was a building that he was able

  • to begin in the year 52 B.C., and then it was inaugurated in

  • 46 B.C., which is a couple of years

  • before his assassination.

  • It wasn't quite finished at the time of its inauguration and it

  • was left to Caesar's follower, Augustus, first emperor of

  • Rome, to actually complete some of the details of the forum.

  • But for all intents and purposes it was done by 46.

  • I show you a Google Earth aerial view of the Roman Forum,

  • as you see it here--we've looked at this before--

  • the Roman Forum, the Colosseum,

  • just for you to get your bearings,

  • the Circus Maximus, the Palatine Hill,

  • the Capitoline Hill, the Victor Emmanuel Monument

  • here, Mussolini's Via dei Fori

  • Imperiali here, the so-called Imperial Fora,

  • of which Augustus' forum, which we're also going to talk

  • about today is a part.