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  • Prof: Last time I introduced you to some of Rome's

  • greatest buildings, and I remind you of two of them

  • here: the Pantheon, on the left-hand side of the

  • screen, the temple to all the gods,

  • and then, of course, the Colosseum,

  • on the right-hand side of the screen.

  • These are two of the greatest masterworks of Roman

  • architecture, and we will gain momentum and

  • work our way up to those in the course of the semester,

  • but it's not where we're going to begin.

  • We're not going to begin with these masterworks;

  • we're going to begin at the beginning.

  • And the beginning goes way, way back, in fact all the way

  • to the Iron Age, indeed to the eighth century

  • B.C.

  • And we know on precisely what day,

  • not only the history of Rome but the history of Roman

  • architecture began, and that was specifically on

  • the 21^(st) of April in 753 B.C.,

  • because it was on the 21^(st) of April in 753 B.C.

  • that, according to legend, Romulus founded the city of

  • Rome.

  • Romulus founded the city of Rome on one of Rome's seven

  • hills, the Palatine Hill.

  • And I show you here a view of the Palatine Hill.

  • This is taken from Google Earth.

  • I urged you last time to make sure that you have Google Earth

  • downloaded on your computer and to take advantage of using

  • Google Earth in the course of this semester in order to really

  • get to know the city of Rome and the location of the various

  • buildings that we'll be talking about within the city fabric.

  • So I show you one of these views of the Palatine Hill in

  • Rome, from Google Earth,

  • and you can see the relationship of that hill to the

  • part of Rome in which it finds itself.

  • You're going to be able to pick all of these buildings out by

  • yourselves in the very near future, but let me just do that

  • for you here this morning.

  • You can see, of course, the Colosseum,

  • in the upper right corner.

  • You can see the Roman Forum lying in front of it.

  • You can see the great--that modern street that you see right

  • behind the Forum is the Via dei Fori Imperiali,

  • commissioned by Mussolini, Il Duce.

  • We can also see in this view the Capitoline Hill with the

  • oval piazza designed by Michelangelo,

  • and down here the famous Circus Maximus,

  • as you can see, the great stadium,

  • the greatest stadium of Rome.

  • It wasn't the only stadium of Rome but it was the largest,

  • and you can see its hairpin shape right down here.

  • The hill in question right now is the Palatine Hill,

  • and this is the Palatine Hill, all of this area here.

  • And as you look down on it, as you gaze down on it,

  • you will see the remains of a colossal structure,

  • which is actually a late first-century A.D.

  • palace that was designed under the direction of the emperor of

  • Rome at that particular time, a very colorful character that

  • we'll talk about in some detail later in the term,

  • by the name of Domitian.

  • This is Domitian's Palace on the Palatine Hill.

  • But that discussion of that palace lies in the future.

  • What I want to say today is miraculously the remains of

  • Romulus' village on the Palatine Hill,

  • founded in the eighth century B.C.,

  • actually lie beneath the remains of the Palace of

  • Domitian in Rome, and it's to Romulus' huts on

  • the Palatine Hill that I want to turn to today.

  • Believe it or not, remains of those huts from the

  • Iron Age are still there.

  • Now they don't look like much.

  • I'm showing you what remains of Romulus' huts right there,

  • and you're probably having a hard time figuring out exactly

  • what we're looking at.

  • But what we're looking at--the architects that were working for

  • the designers, that were working for Romulus,

  • were very clever indeed, and they realized that the best

  • way to create a foundation or a pavement for their huts was to

  • use the natural rock of the Palatine Hill.

  • And that's exactly what they did.

  • What you're looking at here is the tufa, t-u-f-a,

  • the natural tufa rock of the Palatine Hill.

  • And what they did was they created a rectangular plan.

  • They gave it rounded corners and they cut the stone back

  • about twenty inches down, to create that rectangular

  • shape; they rounded the corners,

  • and then they put holes in the tufa rock.

  • The holes were to support wooden poles that served to

  • support the superstructure of the hut and also to support the

  • walls of the hut.

  • So the pavement of the tufa rock of the Palatine is the

  • floor of the hut, and then these holes support

  • the wooden poles that supported, in turn, the superstructure.

  • I now show you a restored view, on the left.

  • And you should all have your Monument Lists and should be

  • able to follow along with the major monuments.

  • You won't see every image that I'm going to be showing here,

  • but you'll see a selection there of the ones that you'll

  • need to learn and be able to talk about for the midterm,

  • the two midterm exams in this course.

  • But you'll see there this restored view of one of these

  • Palatine huts, as well as a view of the model

  • that one can actually see in the archaeological museum that's on

  • the Palatine Hill today.

  • You can see, as you look at this restored

  • view on the left, you can see that rectangular

  • plan that we talked about here; you can see the rounded

  • corners, and you can see the wooden poles that were placed

  • into those holes to support the walls and the superstructure of

  • the building.

  • You can see over here the same, the wooden poles.

  • This gives you a better sense of what they looked like in

  • actuality, the wooden poles and also the superstructure.

  • We also know what the walls were made out of.

  • They were made out of something--and I put some of the

  • keywords that might be unfamiliar to you on the

  • Monument List as well-- they were made out of wattle

  • and daub.

  • Well what is wattle and daub?

  • Wattle and daub is twigs and rods that are covered and

  • plastered with clay; twigs and rods covered and

  • plastered with clay.

  • That served as the walls of the structure, and then the sloping

  • roof, as you see it here, was thatched.

  • Now it's very hard--there are no huts that look like this in

  • Rome still today that I can show you to give you a better sense

  • of what these would've looked like in antiquity.

  • But I'm sure you, like I, have seen huts like

  • this on your travels around the world.

  • And one example I can show you--and would that we were all

  • down there right now.

  • This is a view of a small village in the Maya Riviera,

  • near Cancun, where one sees,

  • if you take the bus or a car from Maya to Chichen Itza,

  • which I hope some of you have had a chance to do.

  • If you haven't, it's a great trip.

  • And you can see all along the road huts that look very much

  • like the huts of Romulus' village,

  • made out of wood and then with thatched roofs,

  • as you can see here.

  • So this is the best I can do in terms of conjuring up for you

  • Romulus' village.

  • We also have information with regard to what these huts looked

  • like in ancient Roman times or-- not in ancient Roman,

  • in the Iron Age, as I mentioned before.

  • We have not only the pavement stone that's still preserved,

  • but we also have these urns.

  • We call them hut urns, hut urns, because they're urns

  • in the shape of huts.

  • And these hut urns were used for cremation,

  • in the eighth century B.C.--these date also to the

  • Iron Age-- and the cremated remains of the

  • individual were placed inside the door of the hut.

  • And if you look at this hut urn, you'll see that it looks

  • very similar to the huts of Romulus that we've already been

  • talking about.

  • It is either sort of square or rectangular in shape.

  • It has rounded corners, as you can see here,

  • and the roof of the hut urn is sloping.

  • So we do believe we use this, along with the surviving

  • pavement, to restore what these huts of Romulus looked like in

  • the eighth century B.C.

  • Let me also note--it's interesting just to see the

  • status of men and women in any given civilization at any given

  • time.

  • There are essentially two kinds of hut urns from the eighth

  • century B.C.

  • Excuse me, there are two kinds of urns in the eighth century

  • B.C.

  • One of them is hut urns and the other is helmet urns,