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  • Hi again. Welcome back to I'm Adam. Today's lesson is, again, one of

  • your favourites, phrasal verbs; everybody's favourites because they're so much fun and

  • easy to understand. Today we're going to look at phrasal verbs with "hold". Okay? We have

  • 10 of them. And again, what is a phrasal verb? Just to review. It is a verb, in this case:

  • "hold", plus a preposition, when put together, have completely different meanings than the

  • two words by themselves. So, let's start.

  • We have: "hold on". Now, many of you might hear this one when you call somebody on the

  • phone and you say: -"Hi, may I speak with Joe?" -"Oh, yeah, I'll get him. Hold on."

  • What does "hold on" mean? Means wait. "Hold on" also means grab. So if you're on the bus

  • and you see like it's a bit shaky, you hold on to the bar so you don't fall. "Hold on",

  • wait; "hold on", grab.

  • Next, we have: "hold off". Now, "hold off" can also mean wait. But whereas "hold on"

  • means I'm telling you to wait, usually "hold off" means you're waiting for something else

  • to finish. Right? So I will hold off giving you the quiz until I finish explaining everything.

  • It's a little bit like postpone as well. It can also means... It could also mean - sorry

  • - delay. So, we will hold off the election until everybody has a chance to find out who

  • the candidates are. Okay? So we will hold off, we will postpone it or delay it.

  • "Hold up". "Hold up" also means delay, to delay something. So the party was held up

  • because not enough people came because of the bad weather. Okay? Or the concert was

  • held up because the singer was a little bit sick, couldn't make it on to the stage for

  • whatever reason. A completely different meaning of "hold up" is: "Stick 'em up. This is a

  • hold up." A robbery. Okay? But what you have to remember is this could also be a noun,

  • a one-word noun. In that case, it's a robbery. The bank robbers walked into the bank and

  • heldup the tellers to get their money.

  • "Hold out". "Hold out" also means wait, but in a very different context. If you're holding

  • out for something better, it means you're waiting for a better offer, or a better situation,

  • or anything better to come along. So, for example: in sports, you will hear this word

  • often. A professional hockey player is coming to the end of his... coming to the end of

  • his contract. The team wants to sign him to a new contract, but he's not. He's not signing.

  • Why? He wants more money. They say: "Okay. We're not going to give you more money". He'll

  • say: "Okay, I'll wait". So he is holding out for a better offer. This could also be a noun,

  • a "holdout". We would say the person is a holdout for a better contract.

  • "Hold over". "Hold over" also means to delay. The exhibition was held over until next week

  • because of technical difficulties. The lights weren't working or there was a problem with

  • the electricity, so the exhibition was held over to the next week.

  • "Hold against". Also, two meanings. I can hold the pen against my chest. I could hold

  • the baby against my heart, for example. But "hold against" - completely different meaning

  • - means to have a grudge. Now, I'm not sure if you guys know what "grudge" means. A grudge

  • means when you... When somebody did something bad to you and you just can't forgive them.

  • You will always remember that bad thing they did and you will always hold it against them.

  • Every time they want to speak to you, you're... In the back of your mind is that bad thing

  • they did. You're always remembering; you're never forgetting, you're never forgiving.

  • So you hold it against them all the time. They want to help you, you don't trust them.

  • You hold it against them that they did something bad to you in the past.

  • "Hold onto", again two meanings. Similar to "hold on", hold on to something, "hold onto"

  • your seats, we're going to go very fast. So when you go to a movie, for example, say:

  • "Hold onto your seats, this is going to be an exciting ride", or an exciting movie, or

  • whatever. "Hold onto" also means keep. Hold onto your job, basically. Don't lose your

  • job; hold onto it. Hold onto your friends. Never lose your friends; not a good idea.

  • "Hold back". "Hold back" is to restrain someone. It means keep them back from going forward

  • or to hold back somebody who's very angry, for example. Somebody made me very angry,

  • I want to go fight... I'm not a very violent person, but, you know, it happens. I'm about

  • to go fight, but then all my friends hold me back and don't let me go forward to do

  • anything. "Hold back" is... Another way to think of it is in school. If a... If a child

  • or a student does very badly, the school will hold him or her back for a year; they will

  • have to do the year over again. They've been held back.

  • "Hold down". "Hold down" is like, for... Like, for example, physically hold something down.

  • Like if I want to fight and I'm on the ground, my friends will hold me down; they won't let

  • me stand back up to fight. "Hold down" also, when you're talking about food. Okay? So,

  • I ate a lot of pizza and then got on a rollercoaster, like going up and down, and I just couldn't

  • hold down my food; it all came up and out. I couldn't hold it down. We also say "hold

  • down" about a job. A person who can hold down a job will have a successful life because

  • he or she has money. So hold down a job means keep a job, be able to keep a job.

  • And last one: "hold to". Now, this is a little bit particular situations. Right? I'm going

  • to hold you to your promise, means I'm going to make you keep your promise. So, you say:

  • "Okay, I can't talk to you right now, but let's meet next week for a coffee". Say: "Okay,

  • I'm going to hold you to that". It means: next week I'm going to call you and you're

  • going to meet me for a coffee. Okay?

  • So there you go again. "Hold" with 10 different prepositions. Lots of different meanings and

  • uses. But again, you need to practice this. Go to There's a quiz there

  • you can practice these phrasal verbs with. And come visit us again soon. Bye.

Hi again. Welcome back to I'm Adam. Today's lesson is, again, one of

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A2 US phrasal delay job grudge held wait

10 HOLD Phrasal Verbs: hold up, hold to, hold out...

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    Sunny Hsu posted on 2015/01/13
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