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  • Hi again. I'm Adam. Welcome back to Today's lesson is about reciprocal nouns.

  • This is something that gives people trouble often it seems, so I'm here to explain it a little bit

  • and show you when to use it, when not to use it.

  • First of all, what does this word mean: "reciprocal"? "To reciprocate"-that's the verb-"to reciprocate"

  • means to return an action. So I do something for you, you do something for me. The action

  • is reciprocal; goes one way, goes the other way. Doesn't have to be the same action, but

  • it's some sort of... Returning a favour basically or returning help.

  • So we can use: "each other" or "one another" to show a reciprocal action. These are called

  • reciprocal pronouns. Okay? "Each" is a pronoun, "one" is a pronoun, "another" is a pronoun.

  • These are in groups, they are reciprocal pronouns. Now, quite often, people mix these... They

  • mix the use of this with "themselves". Okay? "Themselves" is not a reciprocal pronoun.

  • "Themselves" is called a reflexive pronoun. I won't get into too much detail about reflexive here,

  • but a "reflexive pronoun" is a pronoun when you have the subject acting on the object, and the object is the same as the subject.

  • So: "I hit myself." I am the subject, I am also the object.

  • I hit myself, it's reflecting back to me.

  • Reciprocal, there's always somebody else or other people involved besides myself. Okay? Besides me.

  • "Tom and Jerry hated each other." Now, I'm not sure how old some of you are.

  • I know I'm maybe giving away my age a little bit, but Tom and Jerry were very popular cartoon characters when I was a kid.

  • Tom... Tom was the cat I believe, Jerry was the mouse,

  • and they always used to hate each other. Near the end, when I got older, they became friends;

  • it was very disappointing. It was better when they hated each other and always used to do bad things to each other because they were... It was kind of funny.

  • "Tom and Jerry hated each other."

  • Tom hated Jerry, Jerry hated Tom; the feeling was reciprocal. Okay?

  • Here, it's not an action, it's a feeling, but we can use it in the same way. We use it like an action verb.

  • "Tom and Jerry hated one another." Basically, the meaning is the same.

  • Now, there's an argument between grammarians, people who study grammar, who think that "each other"

  • should only involve two characters, "one another" should involve more than two characters. Realistically though,

  • they're interchangeable; you can use one or the other.

  • Everybody will get the exact same meaning, regardless which one you use. Okay?

  • Now: "Tom and Jerry hated themselves."

  • Does this mean the same as these two? No, it does not. If we say: "Tom and Jerry hated themselves."

  • means Tom hated Tom, Jerry hated Jerry. No relation between the two. Tom hated himself,

  • Jerry hated himself. Okay? So this is not a reciprocal action; this is a reflexive.

  • Now, another situation we have is with the apostrophe. Okay?

  • "Linda and Kate were bridesmaids at each other's weddings."

  • "Linda and Kate were bridesmaids at one another's weddings."

  • "Wedding", I'm going to have to look that one up. "Each other's weddings" though for sure. Okay?

  • It basically means the same idea. One to you, one back to me; reciprocal actions. And you can use it.

  • Now, some people put these together, especially language learners who are a little bit new to the language, they say: "Each other".

  • Now, keep in mind, a native speaker will take the "ch" sound with the "o" and mix it - " "eachother",

  • but they are two separate words, you can't mix them.

  • And some people also think you can put the apostrophe

  • after the "s", this is also not the case because we're talking about one person to one person,

  • so the "s" always comes... The apostrophe-sorry-always comes before the "s" to show possession. Okay?

  • It's a little bit confusing, but very useful to know how to use these. Actions going two-way.

  • If you're not sure, go to, there'll be a quiz there where you can try out these examples.

  • And if you have any questions, please ask; I'll be very happy to answer them.

  • See you again.

Hi again. I'm Adam. Welcome back to Today's lesson is about reciprocal nouns.

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A2 US jerry reciprocal hated pronoun reflexive action

Learn English Grammar: EACH OTHER & ONE ANOTHER

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    Man posted on 2014/10/09
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