Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles Today's topic is frontotemporal dementia or FTD. Frontotemporal dementia refers to a group of uncommon disorders that affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, causing a problem with behavior, personality and language. The frontal and temporal lobes are areas of the brain generally associated with personality, behavior and language. According to the Alzheimer's Association, frontotemporal dementia may account for 20-50% of dementia cases in people younger than 65 years of age. The condition tends to start at a small age. Like other forms of dementia, frontotemporal dementia is progressive, developing slowly and gets gradually worse over time. Frontotemporal dementia equally affects men and women. Causes Frontotemporal dementia occurs when the frontal and the temporal lobes of the brain shrink. It is not fully understood why this happens, but there is often a genetic link. Although a variety of mutations on several different genes have been linked to specific subtypes of the condition, about one in every three people with the condition has a family history of dementia. Some cases of frontal temporal dementia occur in people with no family history of dementia. The degeneration that occurs in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain is divided into two main subtypes, one involving the accumulation of a protein called Tau in the brain, and the other involving the protein TDP 43. Symptoms Symptoms may vary greatly from one individual to the next. Behavioral symptoms which may include apathy, a decline in personal hygiene, lack of judgment and inhibition, increasingly inappropriate actions, lack of empathy and other interpersonal skills, changes in eating habit, lack of awareness of thinking or behavioral changes, repetitive compulsive disorder. Speech problems which may include speaking slowly, getting words in the wrong order, difficulty in using and understanding spoken words. Movement problems which may include tremor, difficulty swallowing, muscle weakness, muscle spasm, rigidity, poor coordination. Other problems may include struggling with planning and organization, getting distracted easily, loss of bladder or bowel control, memory loss which only tends to occur later on. Diagnosis and treatment No single test is available to identify the condition, so what medical professionals try to do is identify certain characteristics and features while excluding other possible causes. It's always difficult to make a diagnosis at the early stage because symptoms often overlap with those of other conditions. The following tests may help with the diagnosis. A blood test to see if symptoms are caused by other conditions, such as kidney or liver disease. Neurological testing which may include a more extensive assessment of reasoning and memory skills. This type of test may be helpful in determining the type of dementia if any is present. Imaging tests such as MRI scans, or PET (positron emission tomograph) of the brain. These tests provide visual image of the brain which may help the doctor pinpoint any visible abnormalities, such as clots, tumors or bleeding that may be responsible for symptoms. Treatment This condition can't be cured. Treatment option involves managing the symptoms. They include: antidepressants to reduce behavioral changes, Antipsychotics, speech therapy for people with language difficulties. Thank you for watching our video. Please do not forget to like and share the video. Also, please subscribe to the channel to stay updated on our latest videos.