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• Welcome to Proko my name is Stan Prokopenko, a lot of you have been asking for videos on

• shading. The first thing you need to understand when starting to shade is how light affects

• the appearance of form and how to properly capture 3 dimensional form based on the characteristics

• of the light in the scene.

• In some of my previous videos I talked about things like shapes, values and edges. How

• do we know what shape, value or edge to draw? What exactly are we looking for? Well, were

• looking at Light and how it illuminates the objects in our picture. Light is the reason

• we see anything and the characteristics of light can completely change the appearance

• of the things it illuminates. So, I like to analyze the light in the scene and try to

• capture it, so the viewer can FEEL the light. Form looking 3-dimensional is a byproduct

• of correctly capturing the light on the form.

• Ok, so I hope I’ve convinced you that studying light on form is important. Now let’s take

• a look at all the elements. For this I’m gonna need an egg. For this I’m gonna need

• an egg.

• There are two main zones. Light and shadow. The edge where the form transitions from light

• to shadow is the terminator. It’s located at the tangent between the light source and

• the form. In other words, just before the planes start to face away from the light.

• There are two types of shadows. form shadow is a shadow caused by the planes turning away

• from the light source. A cast shadow is caused by one form blocking the light from hitting

• another form. This egg is blocking the light from reaching this part of the table. You

• can find this shape by projecting lines from the light source to the termination of the

• first form, and continuing those lines to the obstructed form.

• Shadows will rarely be completely black. Light bounces off objects in the environment and

• is reflected back into the shadows. This is called reflected light. In this case the light

• will bounce off the paper and into the shadow on the egg.

• Along the terminator, sometimes you will see a core shadow. It’s a darker plane that

• defines the edge of the shadow. The thickness and softness of the core shadow can vary quite

• a bit. It depends on the thickness of the form, how sharp the edge is between the planes

• of light and dark, or the angle and position of the reflecting light source.

• Sometimes you won’t see the core shadow at all. Only if there is something on the

• shadow side, to reflect back enough light to create a visible difference in value. This

• dark piece of paper reflects less light than the white paper. You can see a drastic difference

• in the value of the reflected light.

• Also, regarding the visibility of a core shadow, the reflection has to come from the right

• angle. If it’s directly behind the shadow side, it will create a nice core shadow. If

• we move the reflection source closer to the angle of the main light source, it will illuminate

• the area where the core shadow would have been.

• If you don’t see a distinct core shadow, many artists choose to cheat one in because

• it can add to the 3-dimensionality of the form.

• Reflected light doesn't just affect form shadows. It also affects cast shadows. Less light can

• bounce into this deep crevice where the egg and table meet, and so that area gets darker

• as it goes deeper. This is called an Occlusion shadow.

• LIGHT ZONE

• Moving on to the light zone, immediately after the terminator, is the halftone. These are

• planes of the form that are partially hit by the direct light. As the planes get closer

• and closer to facing the light, they will get lighter. And the point where the form

• points directly at the light is called the center light.

• The center light shouldn’t get confused with the highlight. The difference between

• the two is that the center light is the plane facing the light source, whereas the highlight

• is a reflection of the light source. A reflection will move depending on where the viewer is.

• So let’s say this is the egg. The viewer, or camera is down here, and the light source

• is over here. The center light will be here facing the light source. The highlight however

• will need to be at the point where the light can bounce off the surface of the egg and

• reach the viewer’s eyes. These two angles need to be equal. If youve played billiards,

• this is very similar.

• To test this concept let’s mark the point of the highlight, and mark another point for

• the center light. Now let’s move the camera and see what happens. Ok, you can see here

• that the highlight moved to a different spot, following the camera. The center of light

• hasn't changed.

• Don’t let the math of all this confuse you. Highlights, and also cast shadows which we

• discussed earlier, can be changed and they can still look believable. People are not

• going to call you on a highlight being in the wrong spot. I can take the highlight on

• this egg, move it to a different spot, and change the shape. And it still looks believable...

• I’ll often change the shape of a cast shadow to better describe the form it is being cast

• onto. For example if I have an object that casts a shadow appearing to go against the

• form. The form of this paper towel roll is a cylinder and to show that I would change

• the cast shadow from the egg to wrap around the cylinder. I usually try to describe the

• form that the shadow is casting on to, rather than the form casting the shadow.

• So, give yourself artistic license. Learn the rules, and then learn how you can break

• the rules to improve your drawing...

• Just want to let you guys know, I will be releasing a DVD very soon. So, keep your eyes

• out. Itll include all the video tutorials I’ve done so far, PLUS a few extras that

• will be available only on the dvd. I’m hoping to have it available in the next few weeks.

• And as always, if you liked this video, share it with your friends. They might like it too.

• And don’t forget to subscribe to the mailing list on proko.com to get the latest and greatest

• tutorials. See you next week.

Welcome to Proko my name is Stan Prokopenko, a lot of you have been asking for videos on

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# Shading Light and Form - Basics

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vulvul posted on 2014/09/19
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