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  • Can ultra-processed food affect your mental abilities?

  • This is News Review from BBC Learning English. I'm Neil.

  • And I'm Beth.

  • Stick with us until the end of the programme and you'll learn some vocabulary about junk food.

  • Yeah, you will. And don't forget subscribe to our channel, like this video, and try the quiz on our website.

  • Now, today's story.

  • Ultra-processed food affects people's mental abilities.

  • That's according to a new study in Australia, which found that older people were negatively affected by things like junk food and fizzy drinks.

  • Meanwhile, research in the UK found that almost seventy five percent of calories in school lunches comes from ultra-processed food.

  • Health experts have called for there to be a limit on this type of food for schoolchildren.

  • You've been looking at the headlines, Beth. What is the vocabulary?

  • We have 'ultra', 'cap' and 'escape the cycle'.

  • This is News Review from BBC Learning English.

  • Let's have a look at our first headline.

  • This one comes from The New Telegraph in Nigeria: Study Ties Ultraprocessed Foods To Poor Cognitive Function

  • So, first of all 'cognitive function'. That's an expression that refers to a broad range of mental abilities,

  • but we're looking at 'ultra' in the word 'ultra-processed'.

  • Processed, though Beth, I think most people know?

  • Yeah. It's food that has had some kind of industrial process done to it, often to make the food last longer or look better.

  • And here, by putting 'ultra' at the beginning of the word, it means 'extremely'.

  • So ultra-processed food has had a lot of things done to it, even before we put it in our mouths.

  • Yeah. And this prefix 'ultra' we can add to different adjectives and it just means 'more extreme'.

  • Yeah, exactly. So, a really modern building is ultra-modern.

  • A very strict teacher could be ultra- strict and someone like you, Neil, who is really cool could be ultra-cool.

  • Thanks, Beth. - You're welcome.

  • 'Ultra' is added to adjectives, using a hyphen but not always.

  • No. And you'll see in the headline and in lots of other places that it can be written as one word or two words with or without a hyphen.

  • 'Ultra' also exists as a noun and it is a type of person.

  • Exactly, yeah. So, an ultra is a person with extreme views on something,

  • so they have opinions, for example, that are much more extreme than the other members of their political party or they might be extreme supporters of football team.

  • OK, let's take another look at that.

  • Let's have a look at our next headline.

  • This one comes from the Times: Junk food cap demandd for school lunches

  • And we are looking at the word 'cap'.

  • Nice and easy, Beth, a cap is something you put on your head.

  • Yeah, well, that's actually quite a useful way of thinking about it.

  • So, yep, you put a cap on top of your head and as long as you're standing up that cap is the upper limit of your body.

  • There is nothing beyond that.

  • Yes, and 'cap' in this headline is used just like that in that way.

  • Cap is a limit, something you cannot go above.

  • Exactly, and we can also use as a verb 'to cap' something

  • And that just means 'to put a cap on' or 'put a limit on something'.

  • Yeah, it's quite official sounding?

  • Yes, (it) is and we mainly use it for serious things and also official measures taken to limit things,

  • so, for example, at work, they might put a cap on your spending.

  • Yeah, but you probably wouldn't say 'I put a cap on my kids mobile phone use'?

  • No, probably not. It sounds a bit strange.

  • So, you might say that you'd restrict their time or put a limit on it.

  • OK, let's have a look at that again.

  • Our next headline, please.

  • This one comes from The House: Escaping the Junk Food cycle: is it possible?

  • We have 'escaping the cycle'.

  • There's an expression with two main parts 'escaping' and 'cycle'.

  • Exactly. So, 'escaping' is about getting away from somewhere that you don't like.

  • We often hear about people escaping from prison and the second part is 'cycle'.

  • Neil, what can you tell us about 'cycle'?

  • Well, a cycle is something that goes around.

  • So think of a bi-cycle. Your legs go around, the wheels go around.

  • A washing machine cycle, the clothes go round and round and round.

  • Yep. So, 'escaping a cycle' is to try and get away from a situation that just keeps repeating itself.

  • And we do tend to use this for bad, negative situations.

  • Yeah. And you can put the bad thing in the middle of this expression 'escaping the cycle'.

  • So, 'escaping the junk food cycle'...

  • people don't have enough time or money to buy healthy food, they buy unhealthy ultra-processed junk food,

  • but then they become unhealthy themselves.

  • And it's a cycle that goes around.

  • Yeah. And we can use this with other dangerous situations.

  • So, we hear about people escaping the cycle of addiction or violence.

  • Let's take another look.

  • We've had 'ultra-'. Add it to an adjective and it means 'more extreme'.

  • 'Cap' - a limit. And 'escape the cycle' - get away from the situation which keeps getting worse.

  • And you don't want your English to get worse, so don't forget there's a quiz on our website.

  • Thank you for joining us, and goodbye. - Bye

Can ultra-processed food affect your mental abilities?

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B1 ultra cycle cap escaping processed beth

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    林宜悉 posted on 2022/11/17
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