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  • This is a Domino's pizza.

  • And this is everything that goes into making it.

  • Welcome to "Fast Food Chemistry."

  • I wanted to know just what goes into

  • the most popular pizza on the planet.

  • So I was able to get ahold of the 56 ingredients

  • that go into making one and build it myself.

  • But don't try this at home.

  • All right, we're back again

  • with another "Fast Food Chemistry,"

  • and, honestly, I haven't watched any of this yet,

  • but I kind of feel like

  • this one's gonna be a lot harder than the Big Mac,

  • specifically because, to my knowledge --

  • there's a fly in the studio --

  • to my knowledge,

  • the studio in New York does not have a pizza oven.

  • I've never worked at a Domino's,

  • but I have worked at a few pizza places.

  • Good luck, Medha.

  • This bottle is phosphoric acid.

  • It's used as an acidifier

  • and a preservative that inhibits mold growth.

  • It's also commonly found in sugary sodas.

  • We left an egg in the phosphoric acid for days,

  • and the result is this.

  • It looks like the shell has completely dissolved

  • and what's left over is just the membrane of the egg.

  • To illustrate what this stuff can do to your teeth,

  • we put a real wisdom tooth in phosphoric acid.

  • After just a few days, the tooth completely dissolved.

  • [record scratching]

  • Sorry, where are you guys getting teeth?

  • This is L-cysteine,

  • which recent studies have shown

  • could be effective in combating hangovers.

  • Can confirm, does work. It's great.

  • The problem is you need to remember

  • to take the L-cysteine while you're drinking.

  • Good luck with that.

  • Then there's TBHQ, found in the garlic oil.

  • It's pretty dangerous,

  • and we couldn't get our hands on it.

  • Domino's pizza sauce contains:

  • tomato puree, which is water and tomato paste,

  • sugar, salt, spices,

  • garlic, soybean oil, and citric acid.

  • From that group of ingredients,

  • we don't really see anything surprising.

  • The only, quote, unquote, "chemical" is citric acid,

  • which is what gives citrus fruits

  • their characteristic sour taste.

  • As a food additive,

  • it's the thing that makes sour candy like Warheads sour.

  • So it's probably a little more sour than you would expect.

  • Do a little citric acid taste test.

  • This is the citric acid.

  • I don't even know how much is, like, too much.

  • Oh!

  • That's too much!

  • Ah!

  • Ah-ha! Yuck!

  • Yo, a little goes a long way.

  • Domino's hand-tossed dough contains:

  • enriched flour, which is wheat flour,

  • iron, thiamine mononitrate, niacin,

  • riboflavin, folic acid,

  • water, soybean oil,

  • and contains 2% or less of the following:

  • [sped up] sugar, salt, whey, maltodextrin, dextrose,

  • dough conditioners, which is sodium stearoyl lactylate,

  • enzyme, calcium sulfate, ascorbic acid,

  • calcium phosphate, L-cysteine,

  • yeast, and cornmeal, used in preparation.

  • Medha: The base of this dough is the same as most.

  • It has enriched flour, sugar,

  • salt, water, and yeast.

  • After that, the ingredients for the dough

  • start to get interesting.

  • Maltodextrin and dextrose are both sweeteners,

  • kind of like sugar.

  • The dough conditioners are a few ingredients

  • that create chemical reactions to do two things:

  • improve consistency and speed up the cooking process.

  • They are sodium stearoyl lactylate, aka SSL,

  • an emulsifier that gives the dough a springier texture.

  • You can think of, also, an emulsifier as a substance

  • that helps two otherwise incompatible substances,

  • like oil and water, bind together.

  • Amylase is the enzyme that's naturally found

  • in your saliva to digest food.

  • Putting it in the dough does a similar thing.

  • It breaks down the sugars

  • and converts them to carbon dioxide,

  • helping the dough rise.

  • Finally, L-cysteine. This is a dough strengthener.

  • The FDA categorizes L-cysteine as GRAS:

  • generally recognized as safe.

  • But they regulate that it can only make up

  • 0.009% of the recipe,

  • which is a little bit fishy.

  • L-cysteine can be typically made

  • from goose or duck feathers

  • and/or pig hairs and hooves.

  • But Domino's says theirs is not animal-derived.

  • Vegan L-cysteine is derived from E. coli.

  • Uh, what?

  • So the choice is L-cysteine from animals

  • or L-cysteine from E. coli.

  • These doughs have finally risen.

  • I can see what the ingredients are doing.

  • It's softer, and it's holding its shape.

  • It's a surprise to me that how

  • good it actually looks,

  • considering it has all those chemicals,

  • and I would assume that it was harder to put together,

  • so, yeah, so far so good.

  • Domino's calls their cheese "Pizza Cheese," and it contains:

  • part-skim mozzarella cheese,

  • which is pasteurized milk, cultures, salt, enzymes,

  • modified food starch,

  • cellulose, added to prevent caking,

  • nonfat milk, whey protein concentrate, natural flavors,

  • sodium propionate, added as a preservative.

  • All these enzymes in the cheese

  • aren't the same as the enzyme in the dough.

  • Instead, it's rennet,

  • a substance use to separate milk into solid curds.

  • Typically, rennet is made

  • from the stomach lining of a ruminant mammal,

  • such as calves and buffalo.

  • But Domino's says that the rennet they use

  • is not derived from animals,

  • meaning their cheese is both vegetarian and halal.

  • A little mozzarella ball, it's perfect.

  • So, now that we've shredded our mozzarella cheese,

  • we're gonna toss it in modified food starch and cellulose

  • to prevent it from caking together.

  • Cellulose is a dietary plant fiber,

  • and one of the most common sources is wood pulp.

  • The cheese that Domino's

  • and most other fast-food pizza places use

  • is low-moisture part-skim mozzarella.

  • The lower fat content means

  • it doesn't get as oily when it melts,

  • and the lower moisture content means

  • it melts more consistently.

  • I've got low-moisture mozzarella cheese right here

  • alongside the fresh stuff.

  • Can I make it any clearer?

  • They're different.

  • This is definitely thicker, still really smooth.

  • And this guy ...

  • Mm. Creamier, but also grittier.

  • Does that makes sense?

  • Domino's ingredients are thorough enough

  • that they even include their pan spray.

  • It contains water, propellant, soybean oil,

  • soy lecithin, potassium sorbate (preservative),

  • and sorbic acid, also preservative.

  • Soy lecithin is in everything

  • from ice cream to baby formula.

  • The color of soy lecithin is not what you'd expect.

  • It's like an orange color.

  • Depending on what study you listen to,

  • it'll lower your cholesterol,

  • or it can kill you.

  • Then we have two preservatives,

  • potassium sorbate and sorbic acid.

  • Sorbic acid is a naturally occurring compound,

  • and today it's the most

  • commonly used preservative in the world.

  • It's not an exaggeration to say

  • the global food supply chain

  • wouldn't be possible without it.

  • It's an effective antifungal agent.

  • There's a propellant added into the pan spray too,

  • which is a pressurized liquid