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  • the United Kingdom is a nation located in the British Isles made up of England

  • Scotland Wales and Northern Ireland

  • thousands of years ago the Isles were inhabited by long-forgotten pre-celtic

  • people known as the beaker culture named for their distinctive pottery beakers

  • little is known of them but it has been suggested that these people laid the

  • foundations for the mysterious stonehenge a series of heavy standing

  • stones which were transported from 150 miles away and arranged to form a

  • calendar marking the days of the summer and winter solstice over time waves of

  • Celtic speaking people arrived from the European continent who soon came to form

  • the brittonic Gaelic and Pictish people these people were not a unified people

  • but were rather many tribes who shared a similar pagan religion language and

  • culture the Romans invaded conquering what's now England and Wales but failed

  • to conquer the Pictish tribes to the north the Romans launched several

  • campaigns into this land they called Caledonia however their fortifications

  • were soon overrun and abandoned and they retreated to Hadrian's Wall their

  • conquered lands were incorporated into the Roman Empire becoming the province

  • of Britannia they brought Roman customs and laws

  • improved infrastructure and connected many towns and cities with Roman roads

  • when the Romans left there was a great migration of Germanic tribes these were

  • the Jutes Angles and Saxons with their language Old English their settlement

  • pushed many Britons to areas in Wales Brittany and a kingdom known as Domino

  • Nia while Scotland eventually evolved into four kingdoms thus most of these

  • were the Scots who were originally from Ireland the Britons of Strathclyde the

  • anglo-saxon kingdom of Benicia and the pics of Alba

  • for unknown reasons the Jutes disappeared from history but the Angles

  • and Saxons eventually formed Seven Kingdoms Wessex Sussex Kent Essex East

  • Anglia Murcia and Benicia became Northumbria after the collapse of Domino

  • Nia the remaining territory of Cornwall fought against the powerful kingdom of

  • Wessex corn will eventually fall under the control of Wessex but it managed to

  • keep its own culture Wales at this point was also made up of several separate

  • kingdoms the largest being Gwynedd in the North poets in the East and differed

  • to the south the British Isles soon saw numerous Norse raiders from Scandinavia

  • these were the Vikings and they began settlement on many of the Scottish Isles

  • the Isle of Man and they even founded the city of Dublin in Ireland the Scots

  • in the pics then decided to unite under Kenneth MacAlpine to form the Kingdom of

  • Alba the kingdom of albergue grew strong over the years and eventually

  • Strathclyde was bought into the fault meanwhile Danish Vikings arrived in the

  • Anglo Saxon kingdoms for conquest after fighting the king of Wessex Alfred the

  • Great the Danelaw was formed a land where the laws of the Danes held

  • influence over the anglo-saxons controlling the region and its affairs

  • the anglo-saxons eventually defeated the last Viking king of York Erich blood

  • acts and Athelstan became the first king of the English although the newly formed

  • Kingdom of Denmark would conquer England and even found a short-lived Danish

  • dynasty under Knut the Norseman had a dramatic impact on the Isles so it's no

  • wonder some words in the English language have Norse origin after

  • defeating formidable sea Raiders from Ireland the Western Isles Scandinavia

  • and anglo-saxon forces from Murcia were fed up Llewellyn's subdued his rivals in

  • southwest Wales Llewellyn became the only Welsh King ever to rule over the

  • entire territory of Wales he was defeated by the English Earl Harold

  • Godwinson and killed by his own men leading to the Welsh kingdoms splitting

  • apart once more at the death of Edward the Confessor there was a succession

  • dispute between four claimants Harold Godwinson was elected as king and

  • managed to defend England from an invasion by the Norwegian King Harald

  • Hardrada however Howard had semaj his army south to defend against yook

  • William of Normandy who could cross the English Channel according to tradition

  • at the Battle of Hastings Harald was killed by an arrow to the eye and the

  • Norman invaders were victorious the new King William defeated a number of

  • rebellions built a new design of castles called moats and Bailey's and introduced

  • a number of reforms like trial by combat and the Domesday book the Norman dynasty

  • invaded into South Wales and parts of Ireland creating the lordship of Ireland

  • at court Nobles spoken conducted sessions in the anglo-norman language

  • which endured for centuries and left an incredible mark in development of modern

  • English after a brief Civil War henry ii would

  • marry Eleanor of Aquitaine establishing the Angevin Empire beginning a long

  • rivalry against France Richard the Lionheart defended much of this

  • territory and also became a central Christian commander during the Third

  • Crusade achieving considerable victories against his Muslim counterparts Saladin

  • under king john heavy taxes were imposed on his barons in order to pay for his

  • expensive Foreign Wars the Baron's rebelled and forced John to sign the

  • Magna Carta a charter that established the principle that everyone was subject

  • to the law even the king guaranteeing the rights of individuals the right to

  • justice and the right to a fair trial most of North Wales remained

  • independently ruled by several Welsh princes until twelve sixteen when

  • Llewellyn the Great became the ruler of the Principality of Wales this would be

  • the case until it but the first who conquered Wales in 1284 effectively

  • becoming parts England at the death of King Alexander the third

  • Scotland was left with 14 rivals for succession to prevent civil war the

  • Scottish magnates asked Edward the first of England to elect a claimant John

  • Balliol was elected King but was constantly undermined by Edward who

  • opposed Scottish independence Edward decided to launch several campaigns to

  • conquer Scotland and depose King John to which he acquired the nickname hammer of

  • the Scots under a brave Scottish Knight William Wallace the Scots mounted

  • resistance against the English defeating them at the Battle of Stirling Bridge

  • Edward marched north in person and defeated Wallace in battle but Wallace

  • managed to escape he was later captured and executed but his efforts allowed

  • Robert the Bruce to rise up and defeat the English securing Scottish

  • independence when the King of France died without an heir Edward the third

  • was technically eligible to the crown through his mother the French Court

  • denied his claim and instead installed Philip of Valois Edward paid homage to

  • Philip as he owned the lands of Gascony and was essentially a vassal to the King

  • of France due to disagreements Edward reasserted

  • his claim to the throne and invaded France beginning the Hundred Years War

  • the English achieved notable victories at the Battle of Crecy Poitiers and

  • Agincourt thanks to the technical superiority of the longbow but was

  • unable to conquer the French with the appearance of Joan of Arc who lifted the

  • French spirit and turned the tide of the war upon the death of Edward the third

  • an entire generation was skipped in the line of succession which prompted bitter

  • rivalry between several claimants most notably were the houses of York and

  • Lancaster tensions were high until a bloody age of warfare erupted between

  • these two factions in the Wars of the Roses it's so in-depth and complicated

  • this period would likely become a video of its own the wars ended with the

  • arrival of the Tudor dynasty Henry the eighth wanting a divorce split with the

  • church creating his own Church of England this ultimately led to a series

  • of religious differences between future English monarchs in between his six

  • wives and naval adventures Henry gave Wales representation in Parliament and

  • created the kingdom of Ireland but realistically he only

  • controlled an area known as the pale in addition Henry's paranoia and suspicion

  • amounted to tens of thousands of executions including his friends and

  • wives during the 16th century the largest of most powerful Empire was

  • Spain under king philip ii england under Elizabeth the first were helping Dutch

  • rebels reject Spanish rule and many English privateers were also

  • intercepting Spanish silver on its journey back from the new world this

  • angered the spanish king and the final straw came when Elizabeth had Mary Queen

  • of Scots executed because she did not want Scotland falling under Catholicism

  • the Spanish Armada consisting of 130 ships was deployed to invade England at

  • the Battle of Gravelines and English victory forced the Spanish fleet to sail

  • around the British Isles before storms in the north of Scotland destroyed the

  • remaining ships in metallian the english led by Sir Francis Drake amassed their

  • own Armada to invade Spain but this too became a failed endeavor born in this

  • period William Shakespeare became a renowned poet playwright and actor who

  • contributed significantly to English literature when Queen Elizabeth of

  • England died without an heir her closest male relative was James the sixth of

  • Scotland James was elected as King of England and

  • Scotland in a personal Union although the country's remain separate

  • political entities as the first monarch to rule the entire island of Great

  • Britain several assassination attempts were made by Catholic conspirators one

  • such assassination attempt was the Gunpowder Plot by Guy Fawkes who tried

  • to blow at Parliament's after a failed colony known as Roanoke England

  • established a successful colony known as Jamestown which would eventually evolved

  • into the 13 colonies at first expeditions to the new world were mainly

  • driven by religious motives which were predominantly to convert the natives to

  • their faith but colonies became more profitable as demand for new world crops

  • like tobacco and sugar increased British ships also made a monopoly on the

  • transportation of captive African slaves that crossed the Atlantic to the

  • Americas millions of Africans were shipped in cramped horrific conditions

  • to work on brutal plantation in the Americas and essentially became

  • property to their masters for 300 years this practice continued in the British

  • Empire until it was fully abolished in 1833 this period also saw a wave of

  • plantations in Ireland where Irish lands were confiscated and given to English

  • and Scottish settlers tensions would rise between Charles the first and

  • Parliament following disagreements conflicts between Royal and

  • parliamentary authority within England led to the English Civil War the country

  • became divided between parliamentarians known as the Roundheads and Royalists

  • known as the Cavaliers under Oliver Cromwell and the New Model Army the

  • parliamentarians defeated Charles and executed him for treason cromwell became

  • Lord Protector and dissolved the monarchy but shortly after his death it

  • was restored under charles ii charles ii married Catherine of Braganza and when

  • she arrived from Portugal she introduced the greatest beverage of all the time TEA

  • Tea had been used by China for centuries but its arrival in the 17th century

  • captured the interest of the English aristocracy and soon captivated every

  • other Englishman in 1685 a catholic James ii became king in a largely

  • Protestant nation James's daughter Mary and her Dutch husband William would both

  • Protestant and many Nobles unhappy with the Catholic King invited William to

  • become King William found considerable support when he invaded and he was soon

  • crowned King William the third in what became known as the Glorious Revolution

  • although Williams supporters dominated the government there remained a

  • significant following for James ii in the scottish highlands clan MacDonald of

  • Glencoe was one such group who had not been prompt in pledging allegiance to

  • the new monarch for this reason alone 38 members of the clan were murdered in

  • what became known as the massacre of Glencoe after Scotland's failed colonial

  • endeavours in Nova Scotia and Panama and an economic crisis in the 1690s there

  • was a union between England and Scotland forming the United Kingdom of Great

  • Britain the House of Stuart's had ruled Britain for just over a century but

  • ended with the death of Queen Anne Sophia of Hanover

  • the granddaughter of James the first and her son George became King Great Britain

  • soon found itself drawn into several European Wars most notable being the war

  • of the Spanish Succession and the Seven Years War victories in these Wars

  • resulted in territory for the Empire particularly in North America although

  • it resulted in considerable debts in order to make up for this debt King

  • George the third ordered heavy taxes be placed on the thirteen colonies this

  • among other reasons culminated into the American War of Independence and with

  • financial help from France and Spain the Americans were victorious the East

  • India Company which was founded by Elizabeth the first had grown rapidly

  • and even operated its own military and controlled a sizable amount of territory

  • the company had set up fortified warehouses where they traded with many

  • India rulers acquiring important luxuries like

  • textiles and spices one of the most important cities of all was Bengal as it

  • had a large taxable population the governor of Bengal robert clive ordered

  • that the population grow opium to export to China instead of growing food as it

  • proved to be a great source of income however when a famine struck it resulted

  • in the deaths of millions of people meanwhile Captain James Cook arrived at

  • New Zealand and the southeast coast of Australia although he wasn't the first

  • to discover the area because of past Portuguese and Dutch explorers however

  • unlike the Dutch of Portuguese Britain claimed as their new penal colony known

  • as New South Wales with the first convicts arriving in 1778 a new threats

  • had emerged from France French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte

  • Music

  • Napoleon had come to dominate most of Europe but Britain's advantage was that

  • she was an island and the Royal Navy had become a major force at sea invasion of

  • Britain was near impossible and in a series of coalition's Napoleon was

  • defeated by the end of the Napoleonic Wars Britain was growing rapidly into a

  • superpower based on their supremacy of naval engineering furthermore in Ireland

  • the great famine struck a disease killing potato plants Ireland which had

  • merged with Britain relied heavily on this crop for food but the British

  • government forced Ireland to export what little food they had to other areas

  • without any aid or food Ireland's population plummeted by half due to

  • starvation and emigration to countries like the United States things weren't

  • looking so great in India either as India was rebelling against company rule

  • the East India Company had employed many Indian soldiers known as sepoys who

  • were under the command of British soldiers these sepoys grew increasingly

  • unhappy and a revolt soon occurred yet it quickly failed due to a lack of unity

  • between Indians after the rebellion the British government took direct control

  • with Queen Victoria being declared Empress of India during the 19th century

  • the world was forever changed by the Industrial Revolution society was

  • transformed by technological advances and increasing mechanization and would

  • launch Britain to global dominance some of the greatest innovations and

  • inventions were the sewing machine the fire extinguisher steam powered engines

  • and turbines the electric motor and photography The Telegraph was also a

  • major invention as a message could now be sent from Britain to India in a

  • matter of hours the establishment of railways and trains also transformed

  • transport forever instead of travelling days by horse and carriage it now only

  • took a matter of hours by train engineering and communication advance is

  • not only United the Empire they triggered a manufacturing boom like no

  • other people flocked from rural areas to city centres for jobs

  • productivity reached an all-time high but the consequences of mass migration

  • resulted in extremely cramped and polluted

  • cities however with these problems that were generated it resulted in an

  • improved sewage system Newcastle focused on shipbuilding

  • Manchester the cotton industry Liverpool became a major trading centre

  • Middlesbrough fixated itself on iron and steel works the presence of iron ore

  • limestone and large coal deposits in the West Midlands and southeast Wales

  • prompted the establishment of ironworks and Scotland boomed in the linen

  • industry the Victorian era also saw a major change in society as families from

  • the poorest backgrounds gained access to education although it was much stricter

  • than today's standards the 1860s also saw the rise of the greatest food

  • combination ever fish and chips towards the end of the 19th century European

  • powers came together at the Berlin conference to divide Africa between them

  • a group in South Africa known as the Boers who originally Dutch settlers

  • proved difficult for the British the Boers lived in two nations the free

  • orange states and the Republic of Transvaal and both resisted British rule

  • using guerilla warfare to counter this the British placed many women and

  • children in their tens of thousands into concentration camps when many died from