Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles This is the good, bad, and ugly when it comes to study techniques. The ugly includes the passive forms of studying we all default to - what we were taught in grade school. This includes re-reading your class notes or powerpoint, or highlighting in a textbook and re-reading those highlights, or passively listening to lecture recordings. The bad is in the middle, where students have intentions of breaking out of the passive studying purgatory, but do so suboptimally. This includes making subpar flashcards, writing questions for yourself without writing down thorough answers, or doing practice questions and only checking if you got the answer right or wrong, rather than deeply reviewing the content. The good study strategies have three steps. Step 1 is to first focus on comprehension through your initial exposure to the information, followed by addressing confusion and gaps in understanding, after which you practice by applying the information. Step 2 is memory consolidation, primarily through spaced repetition with active recall. And step 3 is to remember the larger context to facilitate learning. This includes optimizing the place, time, and environment in which you study. For more, check out my full video on the good, ok, and the useless of study techniques.