Placeholder Image

Subtitles section Play video

  • - Take a look at this Lego structure.

  • Note that it's a solid base down here

  • and then a singular support piece,

  • before finally, on top,

  • we have this flat singular roof light piece.

  • It's almost like a one-legged table up at the top.

  • And now I'm gonna take this little Lego figure

  • and put him dangerously

  • just underneath the overhang that is not supported.

  • Now, how would you change this structure,

  • assuming it was real so that I could put

  • a heavy masonry brick on top of this corner,

  • without this structure collapsing onto the figure?

  • Danger, danger!

  • If you do it successfully, you'll earn $1.

  • Okay, rich!

  • But every extra piece you use costs you 10 cents.

  • Now, many suggest putting support blocks here or here.

  • And I'll tell you why that's really interesting

  • in just a minute.

  • But first I want you to take a look at this puzzle.

  • Your goal is to make it completely symmetrical,

  • both horizontally and vertically

  • by switching any of the squares,

  • while making as few changes as possible, as fast as you can.

  • Let me show you a couple more and I want you to think

  • of your decision as fast as possible.

  • What would you do to make these symmetrical?

  • Okay, one final question.

  • What would you do personally to improve

  • or make this mini golf course better

  • without spending a ton of money?

  • What's really interesting about all these puzzles

  • is that when you ask people to do them,

  • the majority tend to add to the puzzles

  • in order to solve them.

  • In the Lego example, people are most likely to add a block

  • here or here for extra support.

  • Around 59% of people choose to add something.

  • And in the block puzzle, people tend to add green squares

  • instead of taking them away.

  • On the mini golf course, 79% of people choose to add to it

  • as opposed to taking something away.

  • But the truth is in a lot of these cases,

  • subtraction is just as valid of a solution

  • if not more efficient.

  • With our Lego model,

  • by simply removing this single piece here--

  • Ah!

  • The entire structure becomes supported

  • at no additional cost.

  • And by taking away green blocks,

  • you can reach symmetry just as easily.

  • This is actually a known phenomenon in humans.

  • We tend to find additive solutions to problems,

  • even when subtractive solutions are more advantageous.

  • Now, of course, the title of this video,

  • depending on which one I chose,

  • may have tipped you off and impacted your decision.

  • Regardless, studies have shown this pattern exists

  • in the majority of humans.

  • And it's not just math problems.

  • Have you ever tried to declutter your home?

  • You know we all have this drawer where everything goes

  • that you don't know where it goes, no judgment.

  • Most people jump to buying more things

  • to help organize and manage the mess

  • instead of simply paring down

  • or getting rid of things you don't need or use anymore.

  • When university presidents ask for suggestions

  • that would allow the university

  • to better serve its students and community,

  • only 11% of responses involve removing

  • an existing regulation, practice or program.

  • And this kind of problem solving is often the cause

  • of extra red tape and unnecessary positions

  • being added to institutions,

  • new rules being added instead of taken away,

  • or in the case of your own work,

  • more words being added to your essays

  • instead of editing it down.

  • People create New Year's to-do resolutions

  • instead of to-don't resolutions,

  • and even watch more YouTube educational videos

  • instead of further distilling what they already know.

  • But I'm not complaining about that last one,

  • like, please keep watching our videos.

  • You can distill your knowledge at another time, okay?

  • The most interesting part of these studies

  • was that they realized it's not that we think

  • subtractive solutions are not as valuable,

  • but there's actually a bias in the human mind

  • where we simply don't think of them as often.

  • In those exact same studies,

  • when researchers more specifically prompt people

  • that they can add or subtract pieces,

  • the percentage of subtractive solutions increases,

  • meaning humans have a natural bias to ask,

  • "What can I add here?"

  • This is known as a heuristic,

  • a mental shortcut that allows people to solve problems

  • and make judgements quickly and efficiently

  • instead of having to mentally process every situation fully.

  • But that doesn't mean it's always right,

  • or the best solution, it's just a quick one.

  • And this mental shortcut can actually be overcome

  • with some extra cognitive effort.

  • So why are we like this?

  • One theory suggests that subtractive solutions

  • may just be less appreciated.

  • You might get less credit for them,

  • you might feel less creative,

  • and you may face social or political implications

  • if all you're doing is rolling back

  • somebody else's decisions.

  • That's kinda like criticizing a solution

  • without making your own.

  • Not to mention the brain may assume the other pieces

  • or things are there for a reason.

  • Say you're coding, I literally don't understand coding

  • so please bear with my fantasy version.

  • You don't wanna delete some segment of code

  • that you inherited,

  • not knowing what ungodly errors might pop up.

  • So working in an additive form may feel less risky.

  • Finally, there's something called the sunk-cost bias,

  • where you're more likely to continue something

  • you've invested money or time into,

  • regardless of signs that you should stop.

  • What's even more interesting is that in these studies,

  • the number of people using additive solutions

  • increased when they were under cognitive load.

  • So if they were doing the block puzzle and they were told

  • that they had to turn their head clockwise

  • the entire time they were doing it,

  • more people would use additive solutions.

  • Why am I randomly outside, you may ask,

  • it's 'cause I thought adding

  • more dynamic to the video would make it better.

  • Yes, I'm a hypocrite.

  • This entire bias has changed my mindset so much

  • and I cannot stop thinking about it.

  • The amount of time I have spent adding extra meetings,

  • extra emails, putting more in a script

  • instead of refining it,

  • and even in my personal life,

  • just adding things all the time

  • in order to solve things is wild.

  • And I definitely suggest you think of your own life.

  • It may even be why culture

  • has come up with popular phrases like "Less is more,"

  • or people like Marie Kondo became so famous.

  • We need these little reminders

  • to combat our natural instincts to add things.

  • And I mean, why spend more money

  • and affect your financial situation,

  • when you could just be reminded to pause

  • and evaluate whether a subtractive solution

  • might be equally or better suited to your problem?

  • It also rings true for human consumption in general.

  • We all know we have a sort of addiction to consumption.

  • We're taught having more money,

  • more stuff, more status is good,

  • that the economy or corporations should grow indefinitely,

  • even at the cost of people and the environment.

  • We're facing unprecedented climate effects

  • from this consumption pattern already.

  • And while a lot of the additive solutions

  • are super exciting and necessary like solar and wind,

  • there's a much bigger conversation around simply using less.

  • All this to say that next time you're faced with a problem,

  • just take a second and pause,

  • and remember that less is more,

  • or it's at least worth considering as a solution.

  • We actually chatted to one of the lead researchers

  • studying this phenomenon over on our podcast,

  • channel on screen or link in the description,

  • where we go over even more strategies on the science of less

  • from his book "Subtract," and how it can help your life.

  • Now, if you need some help subtracting

  • the excess from your life,

  • and you wanna focus on the important things,

  • then today's sponsor, Skillshare, is perfect for you.

  • And they're offering the first 1,000 people

  • who click the link in our description

  • a free trial of Skillshare premium membership.

  • They actually have an awesome class right now

  • called Productivity for Creatives,

  • Build a System that Brings Out Your Best by Thomas Frank,

  • which will guide you

  • through how to optimize your working styles

  • through mindset, environment, and delegation.

  • I've also taken a ton of other courses from animation

  • to Photoshop, to nature photography,

  • and now even TikToK courses.

  • I'm getting old, I need help on TikToK.

  • But honestly, there are just so many different options.

  • It's really an online community where you can learn

  • something brand new from the comfort of your own home,

  • and they're dedicated to the best user experience

  • so there's no ads

  • and they're constantly launching new premium classes.

  • For the first 1,000 of you

  • that click the link in our description,

  • you will get a free trial of premium membership.

  • Every time you check out our sponsor or try them out,

  • it helps our show, so we appreciate it a lot.

  • Make sure you like this video, subscribe,

  • and we will see you next time for some more science.

  • Peace.

- Take a look at this Lego structure.

Subtitles and vocabulary

Operation of videos Adjust the video here to display the subtitles

B1 additive lego people bias extra solution

Why 59% Of People Can't Solve This

  • 2 0
    Summer posted on 2021/06/25
Video vocabulary