Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles Hi again, everybody. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's video we're going to look at transitions. Now, you may have seen some other videos on engVid about transitions, especially for writing. What we're going to look at today are a few more specific transitions, but this time we're not looking at transitions between paragraphs or even transitions between sentences. Okay? We're looking at transitions that we are generally using in a sentence to shift from one idea to another idea in a sentence. So they're very similar to, like, adverb... Adverb clauses, for example, but they're used in different ways. But, again, they do have their specific purposes. Now, you'll also notice that all of them or most of them start with: "there" plus a preposition, or "where" plus a preposition, and we have the one special one: "hereby". So: "Thereby", "Thereof", "Thereafter", "Therein", "Therefore", "Wherein", "Whereby", "Hereby", these are the words we're going to look at and how they're used within sentences. Now, before I explain these to you and show them... Show you samples of how they're used, I want you to understand that these are generally very formal, very high-end. They're not very commonly used. There are other ways you can say these things without being too serious, I guess you could say. But if you're going to university, if you're going to take a test, IELTS, TOEFL, SAT, all these tests - you will see these and you should be able to use them as well. And if you can actually use them properly in your essays, and like, again, nicely, appropriately, good timing, your score... That'll help your score. It should go up quite a bit because these are not very easy to use. So, we're going to start with "thereby". "Thereby" basically means by which, or through which, or like through this action something happened. It's a little bit similar to: "due to". The only problem is you can't use it in the same structure as "due to". Okay? So let's look at the first sentence. "The team lost the final game of the season, thereby missing the playoffs." So, basically by doing this, by losing the last game, the result... What happened? They missed the playoffs. But notice that we are using an "ing" here: "...thereby missing the playoffs", right? This is basically a gerund expression, a gerund phrase, but we can't use this with a clause. We're using it with an "ing". So that's one thing you have to keep in mind. If I wanted to use "due to", I would have to change the whole structure. "Due to their loss in the final game of the season, the team missed the playoffs." A completely different structure. I'm using the independent clause, here, the "due to" with the cause, etc. This one gives you another option, basically, on how to link the ideas. Cause, effect. But we don't have to use the "ing", we can use another way. "Lisa studied for three straight weeks and was thereby able to pass her test." So she studied, studied, studied, and through this action she was able to pass her test. And: "...and was thereby", "...and she was thereby able". Notice that I'm not using this to start the clause; I'm using it within the clause, between the verbs to show through this action, this was the result that she was looking for. Okay? So: "by which", "through which action". Let's look at "therein". "The new contract does not allow for extended maternity leave;" here I'm using the semi-colon, I'm going to give you the next idea, so this is like a conjunction. "...therein lies the problem for the union, 60% of whose membership is young women". So, "therein" basically means in that, or into that situation, problem, position, state, etc. So, "therein". "Therein" means: In what? In this situation, in this new contract there's a problem. So: "...therein in this new contract lies a problem", and this is a very common follow-up to the transition "therein". "...therein lies the problem". A very famous expression: "...therein lies the rub" from Shakespeare. "Aye, there's the rub." I'm not sure if you know that expression, I think from Hamlet, dream to... If you dream and you can die, it's all good, but then: Oh, there's a problem - you don't wake up. So: "...therein lies the rub". A very common expression to use with "lies". But: "The tomb and all the contents therein"-means all the contents in the tomb-"were photographed before analysis could begin". Again, much... There are much easier ways to say this. "The tomb and all its contents were photographed", so why should I use "therein"? To sound pretty, to sound sophisticated, to sound academic. Okay? This is the thing about academic writing when you get to universities, it's all about how many words and how nice the words are. Of course there's... Content is very important and what you had to say, but they also want you to write very academically. And this is a very academic word. You're not going to see this in newspapers, you're not going to see this in everyday writing. You will see it a lot when you get to university or college, and start reading academic textbooks, and papers, etc. So, the same basically applies to most of these. The preposition definitely gives you a hint of how the word is used, but we're going to look at some more examples and go through each one, and make sure we understand it. Okay, so we're going to look at four more now: "thereof", "therefore", "thereafter", "wherein". Now, the first thing you're going to start noticing is that basically use the preposition in the word and just think about replacing the word "there" with "that". So: "thereof" means "of that". Let's look at an example. "Both parties had their sights focused on the northern regions, especially the demographics thereof", so the demographics... Oh, sorry. "...and were preparing for an ad war". The demographics, this means the statistics, the information about what type of people live there, like their ages, their ethnicity. Are they...? Which party do they lean to? So all the information about the people. So we're talking about the demographics of the people in the northern regions. Okay? "They had their sights focused on the northern regions, especially the demographics of the northern regions". So we have the "that", "of that", now the key is to realize what "that" is. Remember that when we use "that" as a demonstrative pronoun, we're always pointing to something that has already been mentioned, and it's very important that it should be very clear what has been mentioned. The demographics of the northern regions, as I already mentioned, and were preparing for an ad war. Okay? "Fine wines, and a knowledge thereof, are a luxury few can afford." So: "fine wines" and "a knowledge thereof", knowledge of fine wines. Okay? So this is what we're doing, we're just linking things together using more formal language. Do you need to practice this a lot? No. You need to recognize it, and if you can, throw in one or two every once in a while. I personally like "whereby" and "thereby", I use those pretty often in my writing, but I don't need to. I just like to have a little bit of variety when I write, so you can keep that in mind as well. "Therefore", again, this is the most commonly used one. Everybody has been taught this as a transition to reach a conclusion, or basically it means "because of that", and again, "that", something that's already mentioned. So: "I think, therefore I am." So, because I think, because of that, I am. Notice we're using... This is followed by a clause, subject, verb. Here we don't have to follow it by a clause. We can just use it by itself as an adverb. Here it could be used as a conjunction, introducing an idea in a clause, subject, verb, about the independent clause. "I am well-prepared", now, here, again I'm using this, I'm starting a new idea, but I'm still linking. "...there is no reason, therefore, that I should stumble". So, because of that, because I am well-prepared, there is no reason I should stumble. Okay? Reaching a conclusion, saying because, and again, this is the one that you're going to use the most in your writing and even in your spoken English. Okay? "Thereafter", this is very straightforward, it means "after that", a very specific situation or event. "He worked at the university until he retired;" and again I'm starting a new sentence, but I'm using it like a conjunction, a semi-colon. "...thereafter" means after he retired, "he took on sporadic work as a consultant". It means sometimes here and there he worked. So, after that, after he retired. Now, one thing I also want to mention: "therefore" and "thereafter", and before we had "therein", these are... These can be commonly used to begin a sentence. All the rest of them are always within a sentence; they're not commonly used to begin a sentence, they're always part of the structure. Now we're getting to the "wheres", okay? Where... "Wherein" basically also means "in that" or: In what way? Or: In which way? That's another use. Another, basically meaning... Sorry, another use basically is: How? Okay? "The affidavit did not implicitly outline", oh, this is a "t".