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  • Hey Squeaks, did you know that while you were asleep last night, a volcano off the coast

  • of Italy was wide awake?

  • The Stromboli volcano has been awake for at least the last 2,000 years!

  • That means it's been erupting for longer than any other volcano.

  • Stromboli's eruptions happen really often, practically non-stop!

  • At night, its glowing light-shows have reminded some people of a giant lighthouse.

  • [Squeaks squeaks]

  • That's a really good question!

  • How does a volcano like Stromboli form in the first place?

  • Deep inside the Earth -- and I'm talking waaaaay deeper than our fort goes -- it's

  • really hot.

  • It's so hot that the rock that makes up this layer of the earth is actually melted!

  • It's called magma.

  • Now, sometimes magma can collect in a pocket just beneath Earth's surface, and if the

  • magma breaks through all the way to the surface and reaches the air, it's called lava.

  • And now, my friends, you have a volcano on your hands.

  • Lava is bright red and very hot when it first erupts out of the ground.

  • But soon the lava cools down and creates a layer of rock.

  • Over time, many layers build up around the spot where the lava came out, to form the

  • mountain that many of us think of as a volcano.

  • And if the volcano keeps erupting, it keeps growing.

  • With each eruption of a volcano, more magma flows up the tube that forms in the middle,

  • called the vent, and it comes out at the top, called the crater.

  • Then, once more, the lava cools and hardens into solid rock, and the volcano has grown!

  • But not all volcanoes look, or act, the same.

  • Lava can come out of craters in different ways.

  • It depends on the type of volcano.

  • For some volcanoes, like Stromboli, lava shoots out like a fiery fountain.

  • When Stromboli erupts like this, big blocks of lava and stone can be thrown hundreds of

  • meters away.

  • But for other volcanoes, lava just oozes out of the crater, more like a lazy syrup.

  • Over time, this slow-moving lava can create massive volcanoes, too.

  • One volcano like this, called Mauna Loa in Hawaii, is the tallest volcano in the world.

  • And in fact, all of the islands of Hawaii are made of volcanoes that began underwater.

  • They've been growing for millions of years, and over time, all of the layers of lava that

  • have oozed out have built up, until they reached above the surface of the ocean.

  • Our fiery old friend Stromboli, in Italy, formed this way, too.

  • Its whole island is basically one big volcano!

  • So, you don't have to have an underground fort to know that there's a lot of amazing

  • stuff going on beneath the surface of the Earth.

  • There are incredible forces at work all the time shaping the world that we live in.

  • Thanks for watching SciShow Kids!

  • Hey Squeaks!

  • Let's get going before one of our experiments erupts!

Hey Squeaks, did you know that while you were asleep last night, a volcano off the coast

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