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  • Hello, I'm John Russell.

  • Some consonants sounds in American English remind me of mathematics.

  • Specifically addition, I'll explain.

  • When I was young, I learned how to add numbers.

  • For example, one plus one equals two.

  • There are consonants sounds that are like this.

  • They're sometimes called affricates.

  • Affricates are made up of a stop sound, followed by a fricative sound.

  • Another way to say this is stop sound, plus fricative sound equals affricate.

  • There are two of these complex consonant sounds in English.

  • They are 'ch' as in chicken and 'j' as in judge.

  • Let's explore the 'ch' sound.

  • It starts with a stop sound as in 't' and then moves to a fricative sound 'sh'.

  • When you add the two sounds together, you get 'ch'. Similarly, the 'j' sound starts with the stop sound 'd' and then moves to a fricative sound 'ge', 'j' .

  • These complex consonants sounds are difficult for speakers of many languages.

  • Vietnamese speakers, for example, might replace an affricate sound, such as 'ch' with a fricative sound such as 'sh'.

  • The result is that a word like 'much' might sound more like 'mush'.

  • Speakers of other languages might use complex consonants sounds from their own languages while speaking English,

  • For example, Korean speakers might use something like a 'dz' sound

  • a complex consonant sound that does not exist in English.

  • They might use this sound in place of a 'z' sound.

  • The result is that a word such as 'zebra' or 'zoo' sounds like 'dzebra' or the 'dzoo'.

  • The solution for all of these issues is for you to pay careful attention to complex consonant sounds.

  • Remember, there are only two of them in English.

  • Time spent mastering these sounds will be of great value to you.

  • That's all for today.

  • Keep up the good work.

Hello, I'm John Russell.

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