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  • Today is the third video this December where we're using the Friends Christmas episode,

  • The One Where Rachel Quits Her Job to study English.

  • Last week, she had a job interview.

  • Now in this episode, she's gotten the job and it's her last day working at the coffee shop.

  • We're going to study this scene and everything we can about American English pronunciation

  • to figure out what makes American English sound American.

  • Here's the scene.

  • There you go. Enjoy.

  • >> Should I tell her I ordered tea? >> No.

  • Excuse me, everyone.

  • Uh, this is my last night working here.

  • And, uh, I just wanted to say that I made some really good friends here.

  • And, uh, it's just time to move on.

  • As of this moment, I will never have to make coffee again.

  • And now let's do the analysis together.

  • There you go.

  • Okay our first thought group here is three words long.

  • What is the stress?

  • What's the most stressed word?

  • There you go.

  • There you go.

  • There you go.

  • There you go.

  • There you go.

  • The stress is all going up towards the peak.

  • The energy peaks out on the word go that has the O diphthong.

  • You will need some lip rounding for that.

  • There you, going up and pitch, going up in energy and volume,

  • there you go and then the up-down shape on the stressed syllable

  • There you go.

  • There you go.

  • There you go.

  • Try to do that. Try to do it really smoothly connected with that peak of stress on go.

  • You'll listen to it three times then there will be a little pause for you to try it.

  • There you go.

  • There you go.

  • There you go.

  • There you go. Enjoy.

  • Enjoy.

  • Enjoy. Second syllable stress.

  • Enjoy.

  • Enjoy.

  • Enjoy.

  • Enjoy.

  • So, the context here, this is Rachel's last shift.

  • The end of her last shift.

  • She did get a job in the video that we studied last week.

  • This section of the episode

  • she had just had an interview where she didn't feel like she did very well,

  • but she did get the job

  • and so this is her last shift and she knows that she has a job to go on to.

  • Enjoy.

  • Enjoy.

  • Enjoy.

  • >> Should I tell her I ordered tea? >> No.

  • Okay Chandler didn't actually order coffee.

  • What is the stress of his question here?

  • Should I tell her I ordered tea?

  • Should I tell her I ordered tea?

  • Should I tell her I ordered tea?

  • Should I tell her, the verb, should I tell her I ordered tea, tea and the pitch goes up.

  • It's a yes/no question.

  • Those are our two most stressed syllables there.

  • Should I,

  • the word should. I would say is I would write that with a SCHWA should, should, should I, should I.

  • The D is a flap sound because it comes between two vowels or diphthongs.

  • The L is silent here, so it comes between the SCHWA and the I diphthong.

  • So, it says should I, should I, da, da, da, da, da.

  • The tongue bouncing on the roof of the mouth should I tell her.

  • Should I tell her...

  • Should I tell her...

  • Should I tell her...

  • Should I tell her.

  • Tell begins with True T

  • because that starts a stressed syllable.

  • That's always going to be a true T

  • unless it's the TR cluster then it might be a CH sound, tell her.

  • We have a dropped H the ER, the SCHWA R ending just links on to the word before tell her,

  • tell her, should I tell her.

  • Should I tell her...

  • Should I tell her...

  • Should I tell her I ordered tea.

  • I ordered both a little flatter, lower in pitch I ordered, I ordered, I ordered, I ordered tea.

  • Before the stressed word tea

  • and again that is a True T because the T there begins a stressed syllable.

  • I ordered, I ordered, I ordered these two words flatter in pitch simplified less clear.

  • I know the word order

  • can be really tough I actually have a video that goes over how to pronounce that word when it's stressed,

  • you can check it out.

  • I'll put a link in the video description.

  • ...I ordered tea?

  • ...I ordered tea?

  • >> I ordered tea? >> No.

  • No. No. No.

  • Quick up-down shape no, no.

  • No.

  • No.

  • No.

  • Excuse me, everyone.

  • Excuse me, everyone.

  • Stress on 'scuse.

  • Notice the word is not excuse but it's scuse. She turns it into one syllable.

  • This is pretty common, so the letter X here represents two sounds K and S,

  • ex-cuse but it's not uncommon to drop the first vowel and drop the K

  • and just say scuse, scuse S sound K, U diphthong Z 'skjuz, 'skjuz me excuse me

  • and that's what she does here, stress on that syllable.

  • 'Skjuz me, everyone.

  • Excuse me, everyone.

  • Excuse me, everyone.

  • Excuse me, everyone.

  • Uh, this is my last night working here.

  • Uh. Okay after the word uh what is the stress of this thought group?

  • Uh, this is my last night working here.

  • Uh, this is my last night working here.

  • Uh, this is my last night working here.

  • This is my last night, this is my, this is my.

  • These first three words said pretty quickly

  • this is my last then we have more stress there, last night working here.

  • this is my last night working here.

  • this is my last night working here.

  • this is my last night working here.

  • So, last and work have the most stress.

  • Even so, even though last is one of the stressed words it does have a dropped sound.

  • There is no T.

  • The reason is because it's part of an ending ST cluster.

  • The next word begins with a consonant.

  • The T between two consonants like this even when they're in two different words is often dropped.

  • Last night, it's just the S sound into the N sound,

  • last night and then we have a Stop T at the end of night.

  • That's because the next word begins with a consonant and the sound before it was a vowel or diphthong.

  • In this case the AI as in buy diphthong.

  • So, the sound before is

  • a diphthong but the letter before is an H

  • which we would think of as being a consonant letter

  • but if the T was between two consonants we would drop it just like here.

  • We don't talk about letters; the rules are all about sounds.

  • So here the T is not between two consonants, it's after the I diphthong before consonants.

  • That's why this T is a Stop T.

  • If you're completely confused about the T pronunciations

  • I do have a playlist at that goes over

  • all of the different ways that we pronounce T's and the rules around them.

  • this is my last night...

  • this is my last night...

  • this is my last night working here.

  • Last night working here stress, unstress.

  • Stress, unstressed, unstressed, last night working here.

  • So, the ing ending and the word here flatter, lower in pitch coming down in vocal energy.

  • The word 'work' this is a really tough word.

  • Don't try to make a vowel, it's the R vowel consonant combinationrk.

  • This is how we do it in American English.

  • This vowel doesn't really have a sound by itself, it just blends with the R,

  • rk, work.

  • So, work, no jaw drop. We don't need much jaw drop for this sound.

  • Tip of the tongue pulls back and up a little bit wər, wərking, wərking here.

  • ...working here.

  • ...working here.

  • ...working here.

  • And, uh...

  • And, uh...

  • Okay, it's not that common to hear the D in the word and but

  • she does do it especially

  • you'll hear people doing that when they're thinking of what to say next

  • then they're more likely to fully pronounce and.

  • And, the D links right into the next sound, which is the UH as in butter sound and, uh.

  • And, uh...

  • And, uh...

  • And, uh, I just wanted to say that...

  • What's the stress of this next thought group?

  • I just wanted to say that...

  • I just wanted to say that...

  • I just wanted to say that...

  • I just wanted to say that.

  • Again, ST cluster followed by a consonant just like last night becomes las' night

  • just wanted becomes jus' wanted.

  • I jus' wanted to say that.

  • I just wanted to say that...

  • I just wanted to say that...

  • I just wanted to say that...

  • Everything links together really smoothly.

  • We have three more Ts here.

  • Let's study them what happens with these Ts.

  • I just wanted to say that...

  • I just wanted to say that...

  • I just wanted to say that...

  • Wanted to say, wanted to say this first T totally dropped.

  • That's pretty common in this word because it comes after an N.

  • Lots of other people will do that waned.

  • So, ED ending here it's funny because we drop the T but it still follows the rules for coming after a T sound.

  • So, the rules for ED ending is when it comes after T or D it's the IH as in sit vowel and the D sound.

  • So, even though the T is dropped that rule still holds wan'ed, wan'ed, wan'ed

  • and when the word before to, t-o ends in a D it's common to just drop the T sound all together

  • and just put a SCHWA at the end

  • wanid, wanid, wanid, wanid, wanid to say, wanid to say that.

  • just wanted to say that...

  • just wanted to say that...

  • just wanted to say that...

  • She does a True T release here at the end of that.

  • It's also common to make that a Stop T when it comes to the end of a thought group like it does here

  • but here she makes it a True T.

  • So, I just wanted to say that.

  • We have four Ts that are part of the official pronunciation

  • of those words but only one of them is pronounced as a True T.

  • The other three are all dropped.

  • That's crazy. I love English.

  • ...just wanted to say that...

  • ...just wanted to say that...

  • ...just wanted to say that I made some really good friends here.

  • What's the stress of this phrase?

  • ...I made some really good friends here...

  • ...I made some really good friends here...

  • ...I made some really good friends here...

  • I made some really good friends here.

  • I here made, the verb, I made some really good friends, noun, here.

  • So, the general way that stress works is content words are usually stressed.

  • Those are nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs

  • but they're not all always stressed for example, the word good

  • is not stressed compared to really, really good.

  • Really has more stress.

  • I made some really good friends here.

  • ...I made some really good friends here.

  • ...I made some really good friends here.

  • ...I made some really good friends here.

  • The word some, if that was fully pronounced it would have the UH as in butter vowel.

  • If it was stressed it would have that up-down shape some,

  • but I would actually write that with the SCHWA some, some.

  • It's flatter and pitch. I think the vowel is not full, I think it's reduced, made some really good friends here.

  • ...I made some really...

  • ...I made some really...

  • ...I made some really good friends here.

  • Friends here, friends here.

  • I notice she is ending with her pitch going up a little bit friends here.

  • That's to show that she's not done talking she has a little bit more to say.

  • ...friends here.

  • ...friends here.

  • ...friends here. And, uh,

  • And, uh, there she goes again thinking about what to say fully pronouncing the word and

  • linking the D into the next sound the thinking vowel the UH as in butter and, uh.

  • And, uh,

  • And, uh,

  • And, uh, it's just time to move on.

  • In this last thought group on this slide what is the stress?

  • it's just time to move on.

  • ...it's just time to move on.

  • ...it's just time to move on.

  • Time, on and part of the phrasal verb it's just time to move on.

  • Now, we have a lot of interesting reductions here.

  • First I'm sure you can guess the T is dropped in just because it comes between two consonants.

  • Just time, the S going right into the next T there's no extra T

  • and the T in time is a True T because the T begins a stressed syllable.

  • What about the word it's, it's, how is that pronounced?

  • ...it's just time...

  • ...it's just time...

  • ...it's just time...