Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles Hey guys, salute, it's Alex So welcome to this second episode of the sourdough bread. Obviously the first episode was about how to make our own sourdough starter, but this episode right here is about flour. Number one key ingredient when you make sourdough bread—you will be so much more in control of how you bake after this episode. I know it. We are never going to make bread. Never! There's no point in doing this. This is a f***. What? Just sit back relax, and don't be so sour. Wheat. In short, there are two main categories of wheat in the world. You've got the Common Wheat: Triticum Aestivum, and you've got Durum Wheat which is known as Triticum Durum. They used Latin names just to sound a bit more legit, but not only for that. It's also very efficient to clear out any confusions and any misunderstanding which are so widely spread online—on blogs, on comments—everywhere. That messy situation is mainly due to the lack of a systematic and global flour classification system. For example, in France and in Italy, Common Wheat is called Soft Wheat and Durum Wheat is called Hard Wheat, because Duram, basically means hard in latin. Okay enough with Latin. But in the US Hard Wheat usually means high-protein, Common Wheat. Whereas Soft Wheat usually means low protein Common Wheat. You see the problem? So from now on we'll just consider 'Common Wheat' as bread's mostly made out of this category. Now, I say we take a look at the kernel of wheat or the wheat berry. There are three main parts. On the outside you've got the bran which is full of minerals and fiber. The main part inside is called the endosperm. Last time he says f*** now he says s****. What's the next one? Endosperm it's rich in starch some carbs and protein. Finally you've got the germ, this small part right here, which is rich in vitamins and good fats, so please keep this all sketch all in mind because it's going to be useful afterwards Wheat grains or wheat berries are then ground into flour using a mill. I shouldn't do that. Yes, right, of course, you can't make a decent, a proper loaf of bread with the wrong flour. You've got to pick the right flour that suits your baker's need. What you need to know about flour is that they are classified and measured mainly using two numbers. The first one is the 'ash content' and the second one is the 'protein content'. Let's have a closer look. The ash content measures the amount of minerals remaining in the flour after milling the wheat berries, as minerals are mostly is on the outside of the wheat berry, the higher the ash content the more bran and the more outer layers, you will get in your flour. It goes from lower than 0.5 percent for white and pure and more refined flour—cake and pastry flour. Then here, here, you have all-purpose white flour. Then you've got bread flour which is somewhere around here. Then you've got the artisan bread flour. Then you've got the light whole wheat and finally you've got dark whole wheat. From a Baker's point of view I would say the higher the ash content the more complex flavors you will get, but also the more water you will need. Your best option is having to mix bread flour with a bit of whole wheat in order to get the best of both worlds. Also if you consider making a sourdough starter, you should always be using an organic whole wheat flour or at least 0.8 or 1.1 ash content flour. You want as many nutrients, as many things inside your flour as possible to maximize your chances to get wild yeast and good bacteria. So before we move on I want to thank you guys out there supporting me financially on my Patreon page, and I really, really enjoy that. It does make a difference. If you want to help, too then click the link at the end of the video and support my work. Now is that cool if we just step out of my oven? I mean, I like the place. It's cozy and all but it doesn't look super safe. Next the protein content. It's very important for bakers. In flour you can find many, many proteins and some of them known as a Gliadin and Glutenin, when they are hydrated and neaded, they can produce gluten. Do you all know about glutens or should I....ah I already know the answer to that question. Gluten is like a strong and elastic matrix that holds the air inside the dough when it's fermenting and so producing gas. ...And simply put, the higher protein content in your flour the more gluten you get in your dough at the end. So in terms of value, protein content goes from less than 7% all the way up to more than 15%. This is a low protein content, which is perfect for cookies for short pastries, you know, when you want to get that crumbly texture and this high protein content is great when you want to make bread, of course, but also when you want to make pizza. When you want that extra chewy texture. The flour I use to make bread usually stands right here. If protein content gives you a clear indication of how much gluten you can expect at the end, it doesn't say anything about its quality. The strength of flour is in my opinion a way better indication of a glutens' quality, and quantity at the same time. It can be very accurately measured with a number called the 'w index', however, it's never mentioned on the package, so a..... See if you can find the word 'strong' on a flour, and it means that it has a higher W index so the dough might be more extensible, more elastic at the end, and of course, yes, whenever I can, I use strong flour to bake bread. And the last thing I want to add is that flour can sometimes be 'treated'. Industy will often use the term 'bleached' flour. They are not exactly using bleach, they could, but in fact they are using, you know, some chemical agent to artificially age and whiten the flour, so I never go for 'bleached' flour. I go for the most natural possible and even more when I do my sourdough starter, I go for organic. So guy's that's it. I hope you enjoyed this second episode of the sourdough bread series. If you liked this video give it a 'like', 'thumbs up' and share that over your social media. You know the deal: '#Spread It Like Butter' also if you have a few comments about flour maybe your favorite flour. If you have any other questions, about what I said in the video, please let me know in the comments and let's people click 'subscribe' because I make new videos every week. And if it's always, always about food, it's also about getting smarter in the kitchen. Okay, until next—bye, bye. Salute.