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  • Good evening.

  • Tonight, I will talk about "Color Vision and Human Diversity".

  • There are many colors in our surroundings.

  • When we walk around the town, the various colors of signboards and show windows go into our eyes.

  • However, not all people see the same color as you.

  • They are Salvia flowers! Flowers of sage.

  • On the left is the original picture, and on the right is a simulation of one type of color vision.

  • That I made.

  • This type of color vision is called protanopia, a kind of red-green color-blindness.

  • The flower petals of Salvia look similar to its leaves.

  • Therefore, this flower is hard to see for people with this condition.

  • People who have the inability to distinguish the differences between colors, have the condition

  • called " Color Vision Deficiency" (CVD), AKA daltonism or color-blindness.

  • I will show you some other examples.

  • These are cherry tomatoes. I picked them on my uncle's farm.

  • He is a tax accountant but also a good farmer.

  • On the right is a simulation picture of another kind of "Color Vision Deficiency" called Deuteranopia.

  • It is difficult to find ripe tomatoes for Deuteranopes.

  • Red and green are not the only colors that can cause confusion for "Color Deficient People",

  • but also "pink and cyan", "brown and purple", "orange and ochre" and others.

  • These are artificial flowers of pink and cyan.

  • I got them from a hundred-yen store near my house.

  • Totally, only two handred Yen.

  • Both flowers look completely the same color for Protanopia.

  • Color Deficient People h can sometimes feel inconvenience in their daily life.

  • This is Hida beef. Do you know Hida beef?

  • Hida beef is a famous brand of beef in Japan, like Matsuzaka beef or Kobe beef.

  • This beef is very tender and tasty--really delicious!

  • I like it very much.

  • I got it in Gifu when an academic meeting of color science was held in Gifu city.

  • The best way to eat Hida beef is Sukiyaki!

  • When we cook Sukiyaki, 4 or 5 people eat together.

  • We put a gas stove and pot in the center of the table and cook the Sukiyaki at the table.

  • Once the cooking is started, you should watch the pot carefully, and take the beef as soon as it is cooked.

  • Otherwise, someone else will take it.

  • But it is difficult to find the cooked beef for "Color Deficient People",

  • because raw beef and cooked beef are the same color for them.

  • So, they always lose the Sukiyaki battle.

  • How common is it?

  • Well, about 5-8% of men and 0.2% of women are "Color Vision Deficient ".

  • This number includes various degrees of deficiency.

  • This slide shows the distribution of "Color Vision Deficiency " in males around the world.

  • As you can see, "Color Vision Deficiency " is found all over the world.

  • In the USA and Europe about 8% of men, or one in twelve,

  • and in Japan and most of Asia about 5% of men, or one in twenty, are color vision deficient.

  • How do we see color?

  • We have a retina at the back of the eyeball.

  • There are 3 kinds of cone cells in the retina.

  • Each cone has its own spectral sensitivity.

  • It means we have 3 kinds of light sensor (color sensor) to see color.

  • The output of the cones is finally sent to the brain. Then, the brain interprets the color.

  • If one of the 3 kinds of cones is absent,

  • or if the peak spectral sensitivity is shifted in one cone, "Color Vision Deficiency " will occur.

  • These deficiencies are genetic, inherited from the parents and is congenital.

  • There are 3 kinds of common color vision deficient types

  • depending on which cone is abnormal.

  • They are Protan, Deutan and Tritan.

  • Isaac Newton said, "The Rays are not coloured".

  • The visible color for every person may be different.

  • Even if we see the same spectral light, it may be perceived differently by each person.

  • It is because we "see " the color in the brain.

  • These are some examples of confusion color pairs for "Color Deficient People".

  • Shown on the left side are confusion colors for Protans. And on the right side are for Deutans.

  • These examples are by no means complete. There are many other confusion color pairs.

  • This confusion has led to the concept of "Color Universal Design",

  • using perceptible colors for both "Color Normal People" and "Color Deficient People".

  • I will show you a good example of "Color Universal Design".

  • This slide shows a previous version of an information board from Asahiyama Zoo,

  • a very popular zoo in Hokkaido, Asahikawa.

  • On the right is a picture of what Deuteranopes see.

  • Dark brown areas are hard to distinguish from the dark green areas.

  • This slide shows a revised version of the information board.

  • The dark green has become lighter.

  • Now we can see that it is much easier to distinguish the different areas of zoo for Deuteranopes.

  • So how to increase awareness?

  • This is an application software I have developed called the "Chromatic Vision Simulator".

  • This is for "Color Normal People"

  • and it can show how the 3 most common types of gColor Deficient People h perceive color in real-time.

  • It works on smartphones.

  • This application is very useful for raising awareness and applying "Color Universal Design" principles.

  • The "Color Universal Design" is a great idea.

  • But it is only effective for artificial things.

  • Things in nature such as flowers, vegetables, Sukiyaki beef cannot be redesigned.

  • For this problem, I have developed a portable color assistance tool, called the "Chromatic Glass ".

  • It also works on smartphones

  • and It increases color visibility and enhances the ability to distinguish color for "Color Deficient People".

  • Allow me to demonstrate.

  • This is the screen of my iPhone.

  • I am launching Chromatic Glass.

  • There are Salvia flower again.

  • This application also has a simulation mode. Turn it on.

  • This screen is what Protanopes see.

  • You can hardly distinguish the flowers. But, it becomes visible with this software.

  • Thank you.

  • These are cherry tomatoes.

  • It is a Deuteranopes simulation.

  • But they can find ripe tomatoes with this software.

  • OK?

  • These are released for free.

  • At the moment, there are about 47,000 users throughout the world.

  • Now you may be thinking that

  • life for "Color Deficient People" must be very difficult because they can only see limited colors.

  • However, nature is a great compensator.

  • "Color Deficient People" can actually have superior vision to "Color Normal People" in certain conditions.

  • For example, at night, under the sea, in fog...

  • According to a report from the second world war,

  • "Color Deficient People" can find soldiers who wear camouflage suits in the jungle.

  • And my friend, who is color deficient, said, he can see the landscape even in heavy snowstorms when driving.

  • Since you may still be skeptical, I will show you an example.

  • Can you read it?

  • I think most people can not read it.

  • Please look at this through the "Chromatic Vision Simulator".

  • This is a screen of my iPhone again. The "Chromatic Vision Simulator" is running now.

  • OK?

  • In the simulation picture, you may be able to read it.

  • Can someone read it?

  • Yes. This is 46.

  • Sometimes "Color Normal People" are superior to "Color Deficient People ",

  • and sometimes "Color Deficient People " are superior to "Color Normal People".

  • It can be said that "Color Vision" is personality, "Color Vision" is individuality.

  • Each person is different. We all have our own strong points and weak points.

  • If I go camping with my color deficient friend,

  • I can help him to find ripe, wild-strawberries in the fields,

  • and he can help me to find insects in the forest.

  • So, we have to help each other mutually.

  • Thank you.

Good evening.

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B1 deficient vision beef deficiency sukiyaki people

【TEDx】Color Vision and Human Diversity: Kazunori Asada at TEDxSapporo

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    阿多賓 posted on 2014/01/17
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