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  • so with that I'm going to turn it over or Garfinkel who with his colleagues

  • Jane well Vogel and Heidi Alan looked at the status of the profession and

  • scholarship around to Social Policy so thank you mark thanks to all of you for

  • coming after a long conference and I hope that what we present will make your

  • Wow so the paper that I'm doing is social policy and Social Work in the

  • 21st century and with two co-authors Jane wall Fogle and Heidi Allen neither

  • of whom are here but they have expertise in areas that I don't and made it very

  • important contributions so our charge is to assess the condition of social policy

  • research in social work at the dawn of the 21st century we also say a little

  • bit about the state of the profession in terms of influencing policy just

  • focusing on the scholarship for a moment it's a daunting challenge to and Markin

  • it at this and his comments to assess the role of social policy research and

  • social work because the field is so broad including includes obviously

  • poverty anti-poverty research tower welfare health aging housing

  • neighborhood and Community Development anti-discrimination policy some would

  • say still criminal justice policy of they were not intimately involved in

  • that any more tax policy is relevant as well and

  • gender policy so and I could go on that's a partial list so the question

  • that we face the first question was what do we talk about so our solution was to

  • focus on only three areas and the criteria for choosing the areas one that

  • the areas be everyone would agree that the areas we choose are central to

  • Social Work a second and more pragmatic was that we have some expertise in this

  • area and that's why we have three of us I have expertise in the broad area of

  • anti-poverty policy or generally social economic well-being a chain waffle who

  • has expertise in child welfare and Heidi Allen expertise in health policy the

  • method which I'll come back to at the end you should think of what we're doing

  • it's a in some ways novel I hadn't thought of initially but what we do is

  • focus on what we think are really seminal contributions coming from people

  • in social work and we so we focus on just leading research in these three

  • areas I'll come back to that and say the limits of that and to summarize the

  • findings Social Work scholarship is remarkably strong and I'm an optimist by

  • nature but I think I hope to convince you that that's not just the reflection

  • of my personality rather it's a reflection

  • the evidence so I'm gonna begin with anti-poverty policy or economic

  • well-being or generally again the vastness of the literature just in this

  • area requires narrowing and we've narrowed to four areas core poverty

  • research child support asset development and comparative research cross national

  • comparative research with respect to core party research I'm going to begin

  • with overarching research on poverty and here the first thing I thought about was

  • the Institute for Research on poverty has published I think it's now four

  • volumes on fighting poverty confronting poverty understanding poverty there was

  • a fourth but two of those three were edited by Sheldon Danziger who was a

  • member of the faculty at the University of Wisconsin in Madison and these are my

  • these were at the time they were published must reads for people who took

  • seriously scholarship we're interested in overall scholarship in poverty and

  • here I'm gonna divert a little bit to the state of the profession so again I

  • think very impressive four of the 13 directors of the Institute for Research

  • on poverty came from Social Work I've the only profession that has a stronger

  • representation economics same thing with respect to there's now a National

  • Academy of Science Panel charged with coming up with how do we reduce poverty

  • child poverty by half in the next ten years

  • again four of the 15 National Academy of Science members are

  • social work come from Social Work the

  • again the only profession that has stronger representation economics

  • poverty measurement I'll just talk about two contributions there

  • one is the as I think probably most of you know that in 1995 the National

  • Academy of Science recommended that we adopt a new measure of poverty as

  • opposed to the official measure lots of weaknesses of the official measure I

  • will focus on only one which is the official measure doesn't count the

  • benefits from the programs that we have actually expanded the most especially

  • with respect to child poverty so food stamps is not counted the Earned Income

  • Tax Credit is not counted public housing is not counted in the official measure

  • finally in 2011 or 2012 the Census Bureau published a supplementary measure

  • of poverty the SPM and I'm gonna talk about the OPM that's the official

  • measure of poverty they didn't replace the official measure

  • it's called supplementary measure D and lots of differences I'm just focused on

  • one it counts all these benefits cats all these benefits and a group of us at

  • Columbia University myself Jane wall Fogle a student at the time Liana Fox

  • and a research scientist Chris Weimer and there are two or three others the

  • co-authors what we did was to publish take the SPM back in time historically

  • so the Census Bureau only published data for the teens

  • I think they go back to 2011 but we took it all the way back to 1967 and the

  • difference in the reduction in poverty is dramatic if you look at the official

  • measure the trend in child poverty is actually child poverty goes up a little

  • from sixty-seven to the current period if you use the SPM we reduce child

  • poverty by more than forty percent that's a very different narrative the

  • first narrative is we threw money at problems that didn't work the second

  • narrative is that money was well spent it was very effective in reducing

  • poverty a second area I'd cousin and by the way that was cited in the

  • president's annual economic report of the president on the occasion of the

  • 50th anniversary of the declaration of war on poverty there's a chapter in that

  • report of the president economic report of the president that looks at a 50-year

  • look back on the war on poverty and our work is central to that material

  • hardship social workers have made seminal contributions on material

  • hardship I remember when I first the the concept was invented by said the

  • measurement was first done by sandy Jenks the first couple of times I saw

  • and I had a student in class that I poo pooed the measure and said well I'm

  • skeptical about it I was that wrong about that and a number of people from

  • Social Work have published very convincing papers of why this is a good

  • measure five minutes I thought I had 30 minutes oh my god okay well

  • enough Santa biding economic insecurity is perhaps a better measure so alright

  • Chuck I'm gonna go through this quickly child support

  • I've made some contributions in that dan Meyer and Maria cancion at the

  • University of Wisconsin have made seminal contributions in this area in

  • child support I would say that contributions from social workers

  • dominate the literature and moving ahead quickly to asset development so

  • yesterday we gave an award to Michael Jordan for his work and asset

  • development as I've said to friends and colleagues he makes me look like a piker

  • in terms of what he's done and asset development I don't want to say he's he

  • and his students and colleagues are the entire literature but it's pretty

  • remarkable pretty remarkable contribution comparative research icon

  • and cameramen using the Luxembourg income study again social workers have

  • made incredible contributions their modern case studies we have some

  • remarkable examples chin gala sitting in the audience there has done a study of

  • China China's the bowel system it's the largest public assistance

  • program in the world and Jane waffle goes book on child poverty Britain's war

  • on poverty again remarkable important study a child welfare this this is our

  • area we have the professional it's like maybe we should curse God for giving it

  • to us it's the hardest area but we haven't we have it and the scholarly

  • contributions have been remarkable

  • they're people sitting in the audience here

  • Jane wall Fogle you can look down the list this is just child maltreatment and

  • child protection but also if you look at foster care guardianship adoption and

  • independent living again very impressive a couple notes on the current state of

  • scholarship we'll come back to them if you have questions aren't the health

  • policy well health policy is an area which we literally chose because it's

  • not an area where we've had this kind of influence but it's an area where Social

  • Work is playing a incredibly big role and a growing role and scholarship now

  • is beginning to emerge so especially in the area of one way I think about health

  • policy and the role of Social Work is that a lot of health problems are not

  • best addressed by health professionals they're actually best addressed by

  • social workers because a lot of the issues about health are not just health

  • profession related quickly and so I think two interesting developments in

  • health is that we now have a chance that there may be a National Academy of

  • Science panel created that would be take a look at the role of Social Work in the

  • conclusions so a scholarship is strong in

  • anti-poverty research and child welfare promising and health policy in terms of

  • policy influence I would say the professional role is mixed we have a

  • very prominent place at the table but what we've actually achieved if we

  • should only view it as limited it's not that we've not achieved anything but

  • we've not achieved what we aspire to and we need to work on that with respect to

  • pass the future success I would say the keys are and if you go back and look at

  • the slides you will see one is to remain up to date in research skills second to

  • hire scholars from different disciplines and I would say especially economics I

  • had a little bias I'm a half economist myself but I think it's not just bias I

  • think if you look at the contributions working in interdisciplinary teams I

  • think that's essential and if you looked at the items that are listed you'd see

  • an enormous amount of interdisciplinary cooperation creator played leading roles

  • in research institutes and laboratories I think it's I began with the Institute

  • for Research on poverty I think you will see Institute's scattered across the

  • country that social workers are involved in I think that's essential for our

  • continued leadership and second I think and this is something we are very good

  • at comes naturally to us which is collaboration with government and also

  • with foundations but I think the collaboration with government us being a

  • practice profession makes it a knack even when we have better so limitations

  • then that methodology is unique you could say for focusing on first-rate

  • papers to make the claim that Social Work research is strong is it some way

  • there's an element of tautological but here's the thing we could have come up

  • empty that is there could you know if we use that as the test there could have

  • been no papers and the contrast between health where we have less and

  • anti-poverty research we have more is an second the focus on our own expertise

  • question raises the question is are our findings generalizable I think the

  • answer is yes I think all across the country in different areas you will find

  • first-rate contributions from Social Work but that's a hypothesis I don't

  • have the evidence I didn't present the evidence lastly let me say it's a

  • preliminary draft and look forward to feedback first Mara

  • thank you

  • thanks much or yes we have Maura Curtis from one of the institutions that the

  • rivers talking about as the Institute for search on poverty as they're

  • discussing

  • hi so I had the benefit of reading the whole PowerPoint slide so maybe you'll

  • get some of it in the context of of my comments so this was a fun and

  • interesting task what Earvin colleagues were charged with doing and so in

  • thinking about providing comments on something like this about the nature and

  • state of a Social Work research and policy in particular and areas of

  • competence in areas moving forward it's a big question yeah so I thought about

  • it in this way policy practice in historical context that's what I craved

  • I craved that it create a bit of historical context and I kept thinking

  • about the fruit the fierce urgency of now like the times were living in now in

  • reference to where we have expertise historically so what was the author's

  • charge what they were charged with doing was to assess the conditions of social

  • policy research in social work at the dawn of the 21st century and make

  • recommendations for future success it's daunting I agree with herbed at all it's

  • a hard thing social policy research is very broad poverty child welfare health

  • aging housing neighborhood and Community Development anti-discrimination criminal

  • justice tax and gender and others and so their approach as Earth outlined was to

  • focus on three areas that are central to social a society and social work and I

  • would add existing expertise and developed infrastructure structural

  • relationships trust and historical practices okay and so they came up with

  • these three pots poverty child welfare and then health with newer research

  • focusing there okay so it's a big test so then I wanted to restate it okay so I

  • would restate the challenge a bit more broadly I think there's a number of ways

  • to approach thinking about this task both both conceptually and practically

  • so it's overwhelming and it's overwhelming for what I think is a good

  • reason the breadth depth and function of Social Policy Research and Social Work

  • it's conducted by Social Work scholars or in and on systems delivering Social

  • Services and by a wide range of actors within allied with or produced by an

  • agency or governments we'll need for policy research finding so that function

  • of how folks are doing their work determines in part the the questions

  • asked in the policy process so let's think about those three core areas

  • particularly for the first two there's no doubt and both the present and

  • current historical dominance of Social Work scholars in these areas and what

  • I'm struck by which makes my point okay earth was talking he's talking about

  • this person who he trained who then went over here and this person who knows this

  • person so you see the how the focus of the training around a particular

  • substantive area and then where people go into different systems and then the

  • potential for that collaboration over time even out of interest area I think

  • that matters so I think about history opportunities because I'm a hopeful gal

  • I'm hopeful gal and expansion I want to know why why dominates in child welfare

  • right in particular why domiciled wofford why dominates in poverty it

  • wasn't that folks set around necessarily in the linear fashion and said oh I'm

  • going to take on child welfare there's a particular history to each one of these

  • develops areas of dominance so to put more formally each area of current

  • dominance has a story that combines a seized or facilitated presence in

  • response to an observed social problem right place right time research labor

  • opportunity professional policy practice dominance governments will change that

  • needs to be delivered or evaluated and it's a confluence of these different

  • pressures and then the expertise is developed ok so because I like to but so

  • then I took a little time rereading some stuff and thinking about who doesn't

  • want to think about Fran miss Perkins who doesn't want to think

  • about Frances Perkins her time at Hull House her time in New York State an

  • architect of the New Deal hey Harry Hopkins and then where he goes and so

  • that's an older example but that example of how these folks interacted in these

  • different functions different roles and different systems and then went into

  • different systems and then when they needed to know something about something

  • that they didn't know there was someone in their network in their system who

  • didn't know that and so then they reached out across and abroad

  • okay so here's my today what are the opportunities what are the new

  • opportunities have a concerted attack on the basic structure of the welfare state

  • right now and norms of democratic process opened up for social policy

  • research and practice thank you I don't have the answer to this question but I

  • want to entertain the question because will I become concerned about what I am

  • I know know how I was trained to think about the world but I don't know what I

  • don't know and I don't know who I don't know and that lack of knowing that means

  • I might miss opportunities that combine the political context that we're living

  • in and maybe there's practice dominance in an area but it doesn't get half

  • infrastructure or research infrastructure but maybe it's deeply

  • important to the profession the nature of the democracy or the unraveling of

  • our welfare state I want social work to be there I want to lose any of that