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  • Industrial Revolution 18th to 19th Century.

  • The economic developments of the 1800s saw the development of agrarian and handicraft economies in Europe and America transform into industrial, urbanized ones.

  • The term to describe this phenomenon would be known as the "Industrial Revolution," and was first used by French writers, but made popular by English economic historian Arnold Toynbee.

  • The Industrial Revolution was underpinned by the Agricultural Revolution.

  • From the mid-18th century to the mid-19th century, agricultural production increased significantly.

  • The huge increase in food output supported the expansion, and sustained a large population and boosted trade.

  • The increased use of machines over human or animal power in farming also meant that less farm workers were needed, and they could leave the land for industrial towns.

  • Better metals and richer fuel also contributed to industrialization by creating the steam engine, an integral machine to industrialization, which powered factories, locomotives, and ships.

  • The new steam engines used coal and iron, both in the construction and as fuel, increasing demand for these resources.

  • Roads, canals, and railways changed Britain dramatically, connecting Britain and allowing goods to be sent over long distances.

  • Visually, the revolution was clear in the new industrial towns, with smoking factories dominating the skyline.

  • The cities were horrible to live in.

  • Overcrowded, dirty, with dangerous conditions in the factories and strict rules and punishments.

  • The Industrial Revolution saw mechanization in factories of the textile industry, which was previously manufactured in the home, creating the term "Cottage Industry."

  • Now, production could be increased on a large scale because of new inventions, such as the spinning mule and the power loom.

  • The iron industry developed with Henry Bessemer's inexpensive process for mass-producing steel.

  • Iron and steel were key materials for constructing the tools in machinery, steam engines, and ships needed for the industrial progress.

  • Industrial labor opportunities drew people to the cities from the countryside to such an extent that in 1750 only 15% of the population of Britain lived in towns.

  • By 1850, over 50% of the entire population of Great Britain lived in either a town or a city, and by 1900, it was 85%!

  • London had 4.5 million people, Glasgow, 760,000, Liverpool, 685,000, and Manchester and Birmingham, 500,000.

  • Great Britain was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, and was the only mature industrial economy for a long time.

  • Historians have speculated that this was because as an island, there was relative peace and stability for Britain compared to mainland Europe.

  • Rather than spending on a large defensive standing army, capital could be spent on other ventures, and there was confidence for investors.

  • Native resources were also abundant, and readily available for initial technological developments and inventions.

  • Engineers and inventors were also respected and encouraged in British society, and were backed by wealthy patrons.

  • A powerful navy and an empire bringing in vast wealth from its colonies also contributed to the catalyst for industrialization before others.

  • Nevertheless, Germany, France, Switzerland, Belgium, and the United States soon emulated Britain's industrial change.

  • And by 1900, Britain would no longer be at the top with the United States as the world's leading industrial nation in the 20th century.

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Industrial Revolution 18th to 19th Century.

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