Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles Good afternoon! It's a very special afternoon, so I want to welcome distinguished guests, students, faculty, and friends to this really special event. The inaugural Ernest S. Kuh distinguished lecture. Each year, the Kuh lecture will bring to campus an outstanding leader in the field of engineering. We are delighted that Dr. Andy Grove will launch this wonderful event today. I'd like to thank our student co-sponsors for helping with today's event. The Berkeley chapter of the bioengineering society, and a new group on campus that was chartered just this year - we are proud to welcome them, they are called "O Stem", Out in Science, Technology, Mathematics to the college community. And those are the guys in the engineering shirts - Here, and they should be all around. I want to pay special tribute today to Ernie Kuh, the former dean of the college of engineering, professor emeritus, and a trailblazer in the design of integrated circuit systems. Kuh Lecture was endowed through the generosity of Ernie and his wife Patine, and they're both here with us today. Ernie's achievements are many. His pioneering work has had a huge impact on electronics. Particularly the design of IC's. He was a cofounder of cadence design, transferring his research achievements to industry. At Berkeley, he was teacher and mentor to some 40 PHD students. As Dean of Engineering, from 1973-1980, he contributed nationally to the advancement of engineering education. His tenure was marked by great growth in the college - in fact, the Bechdel Engineering Center where we sit today is a part of Ernie's efforts as dean. Ernie is a member of the national academy of engineering, the Chinese academy of sciences, and the recipient of a host of top ons. In 2008, he was inducted into the silicon valley hall of fame. It's an honor to be his Berkeley colleague. And I might say he was dean when I was a student at Berkeley, as well. Ernie, I'd like to present you with a memento to commemorate this inaugural event. [applause] This would normally have been my cue to say, "I'd like to join you in this case to say a few words", but professor Kuh has a very, very sore throat. And as a result, he has lost his voice. So, I will welcome his son to the stage, and please Tim come to the stage to But before I hand it off to you, come up to the stage! Come on! [laughter] Come on! Come on! [laughter] Before I do that, I'd like to aknowledge and thank Patine, for her many years of support to the college. And we are all most grateful. Thank you very much Patine! [applause] Ernie and Patine's two sons are both alumni of Cal, and Tony is on the faculty as the chair of electrical engineering and science at the University of Hawaii. He can't be here, but his wife and family are here. And Ted is also an alumnus from the Haas school of business, and he's here, and I think he's now going to pitch in for Ernie and talk a few words. Please. [applause] Good afternoon. Well, today started with a 7am call from my mother, who unfortunately told me that my father was under the weather and had totally lost his voice, so I'm a pinch hitter for my father's speech. I asked my mom actually to give the speech because she was, is, significantly responsible for my dad's success and I have nothing to do with his success. [laughter] So I've made a few editorial changes - dad, I hope you don't mind. [laughter] Here goes. Thank you Dean Shastry for your generous remarks. I am truly grateful. Thank you Chancellor Bourgenoe for attending. Patine and I are so very happy to endow this wonderful lecture series. I came to UC Berkeley in 1956 from Bel Labs. I supervised many excellent PHD students. Some of them are here today. And I enjoyed working with faculty, staff, and campus leaders, including chancellor Elbert Boucher, chancellor Michael Hayman, and chancellor Tian. Meeting my wife Patine some 55 years ago has been the highlight of my life. I want to also mention our two sons, Tony and Ted. Tony is a professor and chair of electrical engineering at the university of Hawaii. Ted is an investment banker, most recently with Citigroup, and next term he will teach a finance course at Cal at the Haas school of business. I owe a great debt in my career to many faculty colleges whose friendship I have greatly valued. I want to mention just a few. My good friend and schoolmate from Stanford, Don Peterson, brought me here from New Jersey, and I have been here ever since. With Charlie Dissor, my classmate from MIT, I wrote two well-received textbooks. The best teacher I ever had was Ernie Gilleman of MIT, who taught me how to teach. And finally, Lot Fizade, a Berkeley computer science professor whom I succeeded as chairman of EECS and gave me invaluable support and advice when I served as dean. I also want to say a few words about our distinguished speaker. I have read Andy Grove's books, and have always been enormously impressed by his achievement in science and technology. His role in the invention of the microprocessor changed the world. When I visited him at Intel when he was CEO, he sat in a cubicle in the middle of a huge room, working side-by-side with his fellow employees. Indeed, he was a pioneer in both technology and modern management. I thank Andy and all of you for being here. Thank you. [applause] Well, thank you so much everyone for coming to this lecture, and thank you Ernie for making the lecture possible in the first place. This new Kuh lecture expands the wonderful legacy that you've given Berkeley as dean and professor, and we're deeply grateful. One of the special privileges of being chancellor is that one gets to meet many remarkable people. Great leaders, great spirits, big thinkers, captains of industry. But it's very unusual to find all of the attributes that I just described in one single person. But this case, in today's speaker, Andy Grove, we indeed have such a rare individual. As everyone here knows, Andy is a true legend in the electronics industry and in the growth of silicon valley. Not only because of his achievements and leadership in technology and business, but because of his personal dynamism and his commitment to reaching for big, new, game changing ideas. I guess, Shankar, that means he was the inventor of big ideas. Andy earned his PHD at Berkeley in chemical engineering in 1963. Five years later, he founded INTEL corporation, with fellow Berkeley alumni Robert Noice and Gordon Moore. He's lead the company as it's former chairman, CEO, and president. And today, he remains as senior advisor at Intel. He's done pioneering work for technology, is the author of six books, and nearly single-handedly shaped what today are the best practices for managing high tech enterprises. He's won nearly every honor around, from election to the national academy of engineering, and I have to say Andy, the following I like especially - he was selected one year as Time Magazine's "Man of the Year". Recently, some of you may have seen that the Wall Street Journal published an article about Silicon Valley Leaders who are involved in helping undocumented young people gain access to higher education and jobs. Andy Grove, together with his spouse Eva, are among those admirable leaders who have courageously supported educational access for undocumented youth. Understanding that it is an issue important not only to sustaining equal opportunity but also to the economic health competitiveness of California and US more broadly. In fact, I wish we'd had you here yesterday because at the end of the day yesterday we had a reception to celebrate the first scholarships that we've been able to give to our undocumented students because of the path they chose, AB130, and next year, as of AB131 we'll be able to provide them conventional financial aid, including cal grants, and it was probably one of the most inspiring events I've been at since I became chancellor of Berkeley. We though there were about 50 undocumented students, and 140 have turned up and gotten financial aid. These are courageous, wonderful young people. At Berkeley, we are proud to call Andy a very good friend. He's been a benefactor and a sound advisory to a succession of chancellors, including myself and deans of engineering, including the two of them sitting there and several others in the audience. In recent years, he has turned his efforts to advancing medicine and patient care. He's been patient advocate at UCSF and has worked to further research on prostate cancer and Parkinson's disease. He does great work in many areas, through the Grove Foundation, and we are proud to have with us today his partners in that effort, his wife Eva, but also his daughter Karen, who's a Berkeley engineering alumni. [applause] As you will learn today, he is passionate about shortening the time it takes to translate new technology to better, affordable patient care. Central to that effort, he has been a driving force in the creation of a master of transnational medicine degree program, which is awarded jointly by UC Berkeley and by UC San Francisco. It is my great pleasure to welcome Dr. Andy Grove. [applause] One more remark. [applause] Andy, before you begin your talk, I'd like to mark this occasion in a special way. The Chancellor's Citation is given to distinguished visitors whose presence honors our campus and achievements the university salutes. And to celebrate your remarkable career and your long partnership with your alma mater, we are delighted to award you the chancellor's citation. [applause] As I was listening, I wondered if you were counted among the immigrants? Congratulations! [applause] Before I start my talk, I would like to explain the title. The title is a little bit of history. As the chancellor said, I have been concerned about the speed with which medical developments take place and compared several occasion how we do similar things, how we increase the learning process to get results faster. I discovered that whenever I made these comparisons, fairly aggressive blog writers crapped on my head. Berkeley. Mario Savio would agree. The only good news about this - he was consistently complaining about microchips are not men, and men are not microchips. But as he kept doing this, he decided to call the possibility of comparing these two things as the andigrove fallacy. If you knew me well, you would know that I am green with envy every time I hear about Moore's law. [laughter] Well, Gordon, you don't have a fallacy. [laughter] The problem with the speed of discovery is that a small part of - it's a very serious problem. Economically, it is single-handedly capable of doing major harm to the US economy, comparable to a handful of wars, financially. The more we drive the engine, the less it wants to move. This is one of an infinite number of statistics showing that when you compare the United States to advanced countries, life expectancy - there is an advantage to being in the US. US medicine did do something with all the money that we spent on it, but it seemed like we are driving the whole thing into separation. So how do we break out of that situation where the more we spend, the best we can hope for is to not make things worse. Before even thinking about that question, I want to tell you about the US government's part and participation in this problem is. It takes the shape of two very major organizations. Lots of PHD employees of longterm standing, dedicated and hardworking people - not alltogether different from an academic campus. The NIH is responsible for developing science for medical use, the FDA is supposed to make sure that when the science becomes a drug it is safe and effective. And CMS is - how many of you know what CMS is? Two? Four? CMS is your building agency and healthcare matters. Every time you get a statement Your treatment - which I will not remind you what it is - would have cost you two million dollars. But since we give a major discount, it only costs 20,000 dollars. That is the work product of this CMS driven financial system. I want to talk a little bit about each of these blocks. By the way, I should say the person who writes the blogs might as well say that these are my personal opinions. Occasionally supported by data. [laughter] My data is no worse than his data. My opinion is better than his. [laughter] The NIH is responsible for the scientific work. And there's a phrase using the principle of the phrase to prioritize what gets funded and what doesn't. And that phrase is, "When everybody has left these medical science business, we want the best science." Best is hard to quantify, but at least it ought to be directionally definable. It isn't. It is the instruction given to groups of people to judge the merits of different proposals. Best wins. And if the people disagree, there's no metric. Relatively few facts that set the value. Consequently, there seems to be an arbitrary referendum to make decisions of the NIH which over a long period of time average out. But in facing any given problem, this vague instruction does not help focus. The second building block I want to talk about is the FDA. The food and drug administration. That doesn't have anything to do with food, it has a great deal to do with drugs, and it is probably one of the strengths of the US medical system we have a strong organization dedicated to make sure that drugs are safe. This responsibility was given to the FDA many years ago back in the 1930s. And it is a fairly simple one. Actually, when you start arguing any safe turning into a carcinogen, you have to go to congress to get a definition. What is worse, the FDA has shown, or was urged to evolve admission in a creeping fashion where in the 1960s, due to a variety of things that took place, the senate passed an addendum to the law that gave it a responsibility for effectiveness. So thereafter, a drug could only be taken by you if it was safe and if it was effective. Effectiveness is even harder to define than safe. I can illustrate that.