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  • Bryn Freedman: So you said that in the 20th century,

  • global power was in the hands of government.

  • At the beginning of this digital century,

  • it really moved to corporations

  • and that in the future, it would move to individuals.

  • And I've interviewed a lot of people,

  • and they say you're wrong,

  • and they are betting on the companies.

  • So why are you right,

  • and why are individuals going to win out?

  • Fadi Chehadé: Because companies cater to individuals,

  • and we as the citizenry

  • need to start understanding that we have a big role

  • in shaping how the world will be governed, moving forward.

  • Yes, indeed, the tug of war right now is between governments,

  • who lost much of their power to companies

  • because the internet is not built around the nation-state system

  • around which governments have power.

  • The internet is transnational.

  • It's not international, and it's not national,

  • and therefore the companies became very powerful.

  • They shape our economy.

  • They shape our society.

  • Governments don't know what to do.

  • Right now, they're reacting.

  • And I fear that if we do not, as the citizenry --

  • which are, in my opinion, the most important leg of that stool --

  • don't take our role,

  • then you are right.

  • The detractors, or the people telling you that businesses will prevail, are right.

  • It will happen.

  • BF: So are you saying that individuals will force businesses

  • or business will be forced to be responsive,

  • or is there a fear that they won't be?

  • FC: I think they will be.

  • Look at two weeks ago,

  • a small company called Skip winning over Uber and Lyft and everyone

  • to actually get the license for the San Francisco scooter business.

  • And if you read why did Skip win,

  • because Skip listened to the people of San Francisco,

  • who were tired of scooters being thrown everywhere,

  • and actually went to the city and said,

  • "We will deploy the service,

  • but we will respond to the people's requirements

  • that we organize ourselves around a set of rules."

  • They self-governed their behavior, and they won the contract

  • over some very powerful companies.

  • BF: So speaking of guidelines and self-governance,

  • you've spent an entire lifetime creating guidelines and norms

  • for the internet.

  • Do you think those days are over?

  • Who is going to guide, who is going to control,

  • and who is going to create those norms?

  • FC: The rules that govern the technology layers of the internet

  • are now well put in place,

  • and I was very busy for a few years setting those rules

  • around the part of the internet that makes the internet one network.

  • The domain-name system, the IP numbers,

  • all of that is in place.

  • However, as we get now into the upper layers of the internet,

  • the issues that affect me and you every day --

  • privacy, security, etc. --

  • the system to create norms for those unfortunately is not in place.

  • So we do have an issue.

  • We have a system of cooperation and governance

  • that really needs to be created right now

  • so that companies, governments and the citizenry can agree

  • how this new digital world is going to advance.

  • BF: So what gives a digital company any incentive?

  • Let's say -- Facebook comes to mind --

  • they would say they have their users' best interests at heart,

  • but I think a lot of people would disagree with that.

  • FC: It's been very difficult to watch how tech companies have reacted

  • to the citizenry's response to their technologies.

  • And some of them, two or three years ago, basically dismissed it.

  • The word that I heard in many board rooms is, "We're just a technology platform.

  • It's not my issue if my technology platform

  • causes families to go kill their girls in Pakistan.

  • It's not my issue. It's their problem.

  • I just have a technology platform."

  • Now, I think we are now entering a stage

  • where companies are starting to realize this is no longer sustainable,

  • and they're starting to see the pushback

  • that's coming from people, users, citizens,

  • but also governments that are starting to say,

  • "This cannot be."

  • So I think there is a maturity that is starting to set,

  • especially in that Silicon Valley area,

  • where people are beginning to say, "We have a role."

  • So when I speak to these leaders, I say,

  • "Look, you could be the CEO, a very successful CEO of a company,

  • but you could also be a steward."

  • And that's the key word.

  • "You could be a steward of the power you have

  • to shape the lives and the economies of billions of people.

  • Which one do you want to be?"

  • And the answer is, it's not one or the other.

  • This is what we are missing right now.

  • So when an adult like Brad Smith, the president of Microsoft,

  • said a few months ago,

  • "We need a new set of Geneva Conventions

  • to manage the security of the digital space,"

  • many of the senior leaders in Silicon Valley

  • actually spoke against his words.

  • "What do you mean, Geneva Convention?

  • We don't need any Geneva Conventions. We self-regulate."

  • But that mood is changing,

  • and I'm starting to see many leaders say,

  • "Help us out."

  • But here lies the conundrum.

  • Who is going to help those leaders do the right thing?

  • BF: So who is going to help them?

  • Because I'd love to interview you for an hour,

  • but give me your biggest fear and your best hope

  • for how this is going to work out.

  • FC: My biggest hope is that we will become each stewards

  • of this new digital world.

  • That's my biggest hope,

  • because I do think, often, we want to put the blame on others.

  • "Oh, it's these CEOs. They're behaving this way."

  • "These governments are not doing enough."

  • But how about us?

  • How is each of us actually taking the responsibility to be a steward

  • of the digital space we live in?

  • And one of the things I've been pushing on university presidents

  • is we need every engineering and science and computer science student

  • who is about to write the next line of code

  • or design the next IoT device

  • to actually have in them a sense of responsibility and stewardship

  • towards what they're building.

  • So I suggested we create a new oath,

  • like the Hippocratic Oath,

  • so that every student entering an engineering program

  • takes a technocratic oath or a wisdom oath

  • or some oath of commitment to the rest of us.

  • That's my best hope, that we all rise.

  • Because governments and businesses will fight over this power game,

  • but where are we?

  • And unless we play into that power table,

  • I think we'll end up in a bad place.

  • My biggest fear?

  • My biggest fear, to be very tactical today,

  • what is keeping me up at night

  • is the current war between the West, the liberal world,

  • and China,

  • in the area of artificial intelligence.

  • There is a real war going on,

  • and for those of us who have lived through the nuclear nonproliferation age

  • and saw how people agreed

  • to take some very dangerous things off the table,

  • well, the Carnegie Endowment just finished a study.

  • They talked to every country that made nuclear weapons

  • and asked them,

  • "Which digital 'weapon' would you take off the table

  • against somebody else's schools or hospitals?"

  • And the answer --

  • from every nuclear power -- to this question was,

  • nothing.

  • That's what I'm worried about ...

  • The weaponization of the digital space,

  • and the race to get there.

  • BF: Well, it sounds like you've got a lot of work to do,

  • and so do the rest of us.

  • Fadi, thank you so much. I really appreciate it.

  • FC: Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Bryn Freedman: So you said that in the 20th century,

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B1 US TED oath fc digital power biggest fear

【TED】Fadi Chehadé and Bryn Freedman: What everyday citizens can do to claim power on the internet (What everyday citizens can do to claim power on the internet | Fadi Chehadé and Bryn Freedman)

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    林宜悉 posted on 2018/11/20
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