Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles Hey there. I am Mike Rugnetta. This is Crash Course Mythology and today we're continuing with pantheons, and one that is likely to be a viewer favorite. Bring on the ouzo, pour out some nectar, It's the Greeks! Opa!!! War, War, hunting, War, hunting, metallurgy, War, hunting, metallurgy, the complete inability to deal reasonably with even the smallest bit of conflict... and also, rape while disguised as an animal. And best of all we already know the Greeks from paintings and sculptures, and those really long books... and the Clash of the Titans movies. And also-- OPA!! (crash) *Egyptian myth-facts* *Greek myth-facts* *Indian myth-facts* *Norse myth-facts* *So much myths, guys!* You might be thinking: wait a minute... Didn't we already talk about Greek gods in the episode on creation stories? --And you're right, we did! -And you're right, we did! But that was the FIRST set of Greek gods. Two whole dynasties of divinities had to be overthrown before we get to the Olympians, But before we get into all the sex, ambrosia and petty conflict, let's define some terms: We've been talking about Pantheons as groups of gods, mainly because us classics nerds like to show off our knowledge of Greek and Latin. National Latin Award Scholar right here, National Latin Award Scholar right here, folks. Anyway- PANTHEON PANTHEON -means- PANTHEON -means- ALL THE GODS Which.. Which.. is already a little weird. There are many gods, and they change based upon which versions of the myths you're studying. And then there are demigods, and maybe even some heroes. Gods, as we are using the term, are divine immortal beings, usually created out of the sexual union between other immortal beings, or sometimes out of some unorthodox nativity-- --like we saw with Aphrodite.. --like we saw with Aphrodite.. and the --like we saw with Aphrodite.. and the bloody --like we saw with Aphrodite.. and the bloody testicle foam. Demigods are minor deities or the offspring of gods and mortals. They usually have special powers and sometimes can become truly divine. Heroes are exalted mortals, meaning they can die but they can also perform special feats on Earth. Sometimes they're the offspring of a god and a human, sometimes they're just.. sometimes they're just.. lucky. sometimes they're just.. lucky. You know, like pop stars. Remember Gaia and Uranos and their offspring the Titans? Let's refresh. These are the first and second sets of Greek gods. The titans were led by Kronos who overthrew Uranos, and Kronos was so worried about his own children overthrowing him that he swallowed them. That did not work out for him. Whoops. Then, like father, like son, Zeus, son of Kronos and Rhea decided to overthrow his father. He and his siblings defeated the Titans and became the first Olympians. Roll-call: Hestia, the first child of Kronos and Rhea, became the goddess of the hearth and home. She's not in many myths, but was an important household deity honored with many sacrifices. Hades was the God of the underworld, who you'll remember from the story of Persephone from episode one. Kore's mother was Demeter, another child of Kronos and Rhea, and the goddess of agriculture. That's right. She has amazing powers over wheat, figs, and olives; kind of a big deal in an agrarian society. Poseidon became the Lord of the Seas after the Titans' defeat. He was associated with earthquakes and horses and was even the father of a famous one: Pegasus, Whose mother.. Whose mother.. was Medusa. (Snake-Hair Lady) (Snake-Hair Lady) + (Snake-Hair Lady) + (Water-King/Horse-Lover) (Snake-Hair Lady) + (Water-King/Horse-Lover) = (Snake-Hair Lady) + (Water-King/Horse-Lover) = (Magic Stallion) (Snake-Hair Lady) + (Water-King/Horse-Lover) = (Magic Stallion) So, yeah... (Snake-Hair Lady) + (Water-King/Horse-Lover) = (Magic Stallion) So, yeah... it checks out. (Snake-Hair Lady) + (Water-King/Horse-Lover) = (Magic Stallion) So, yeah... it checks out. God (Snake-Hair Lady) + (Water-King/Horse-Lover) = (Magic Stallion) So, yeah... it checks out. God DNA is weird. Zeus was the last of the Olympians born to Kronos and Rhea and became the most important: he's the sky god, controlling storms and wielding a thunderbolt! Which, I think it's pretty fair to say, Which, I think it's pretty fair to say, is a boss thing to wield --which makes sense, because he's also the patriarch of the Olympians, despite being the youngest. He was the leader of the revolt over the titans plus he was the baby-daddy of so many gods and mortals; so he gets to wave his bolt around and tell everyone what to do, I guess. Zeus was the father of the next generation of Olympians with a variety of wives, consorts and, depending upon how you read it, numerous one-night stands.. ..or rape victims. His first wife was Metis, who was from the Titans' generation. An older woman, the word 'Metis' means 'skill,' or 'cunning.' and she was said to provide wise counsel to Zeus and because wise counselors often give advice that rulers don't want to hear, Zeus swallowed her. It's possible that Metis is the mother of Athena, although it's hard to know because of how she was... um... um...born? According to one version of Athena's birth, Zeus had a terrible headache, and asked his son Hephaestus to help cure it. Since this is pre-Motrin, Hephaestus literally Cracked open Zeus' skull.. Cracked open Zeus' skull.. and out popped Athena, a goddess of wisdom, war and the arts, a goddess of wisdom, war and the arts, especially spinning and weaving. She was wearing a full suit of armor, and Athena created the olive tree, so she's the patroness of Athens and why we now have tapenade. Incidentally, this is also why Incidentally, this is also why Hephaestus Incidentally, this is also why Hephaestus is not Incidentally, this is also why Hephaestus is not the god Incidentally, this is also why Hephaestus is not the god of doctors. Zeus' second wife was Demeter with whom he fathered Kore. Hey, gurl! Hey, gurl! Remember? Because Kore means.. Hey gurl! Remember? Because Kore means.. girl? Hey gurl! Remember? Because Kore means.. girl? (these are the jokes, people.) Anyway, that relationship didn't last, and Zeus married her sister, Hera. Good thing that there's no god of awkwaaard... Hera was sometimes associated with childbirth, but mostly her thing was being miffed at Zeus. Hera and Zeus had four children: Hebe, a goddess of youth and the cupbearer to the Olympians, who married Hercules; Eileithyia, who was a goddess of childbirth; the other two children, Hephaestus and Ares, showed up in a number of myths. Hephaestus, a smith who walks with a limp, is the god of fire and crafts. Ares is a god of war, more about, like, carnage than strategy, and they both have a thing for Aphrodite. Because everyone has a thing for Aphrodite. Zeus' liaisons resulted in other Olympians as well, for instance: with Leto, whose parents were Titans, zeus fathered the twins Apollo and Artemis. Apollo became the god of the sun and music. Also, moderation, because that was something that Greeks needed a god for. Artemis was associated with the moon and with the hunt. Like Athena, Artemis was a virgin goddess and she'd sometimes tear apart the bodies of men who saw her naked. The final child of Zeus to become a member of the Olympian pantheon is his son with Maia, the daughter of the demigod Atlas, who holds up the world. This is Hermes, the god of the road and of travellers. He's Zeus' messenger, who also leads people to Hades. Hermes had a winged hat and winged sandals way before Adidas JS wings He's a trickster who often makes sharp deals, and he's a god of writing and magic, which basically makes him the Hellenised version of Thoth. High five, Thoth! Get you some feathered kicks, my dude. The final member of the Olympian pantheon we need to discuss is the one David Leeming calls: at once the most ambiguous and the most foreign of the Greek gods: Dionysus, the god of wine. Dionysus had an unusual birth. After consorting with Zeus, his human mother Semele made a wish to see Zeus in his true form. Regrettable. When Zeus revealed himself, his godly presence burned Semele to a crisp. Zeus saved the embryonic Dionysus and sewed him up in his thigh, from which he was later born. Now, there's archaeological evidence that Dionysus was worshipped in the ancient Greek city of Mycenae as early as 1200 BCE, but many stories portray Dionysus as a foreigner. A bunch of greek gods originated as deities associated with cults from different cities: Artemis was probably a great mother goddess in Anatolia for instance, but Dionysus? homegrown! Or home-sown, I guess. So why is he considered foreign? Maybe it's because Dionysus represents human traits that are very different from the idealized self-control of Apollo Dionysus is called the God of wine, but he's more a god of abandon, or disinhibition. According to Thurry and Devinney, "the Greeks experienced the power of Dionysus not as drunkenness, but as a kind of fervent inspiration, a religious experience in which the worshippers' instincts were liberated from the bondage of social custom." The Romans called this the bacchanal, after their version of Dionysus, Bacchus. The cultic rituals of Dionysus are performed by women called Maenads, who leave home, go into the woods and drink and dance and hunt and tear wild animals to pieces as a sacrifice. Yeah, it's all beer pong and keg stands until the ladies start devouring the flesh of still living beasts. No wonder the Dionysus was psychologically challenging for the Greeks.