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  • Well hey there! I'm Emma from mmmEnglish!

  • So I've been talking about modal verbs

  • over the last few weeks, about all of their different uses.

  • Now, don't worry if you missed out on them,

  • the links are right here.

  • But one way to make sure that you don't miss out on

  • any of my weekly English lessons here is to subscribe!

  • Subscribe by clicking the red button down there.

  • You'll get a message telling you as soon as

  • there's a new lesson here on the mmmEnglish channel,

  • so you can keep studying with me and keep up-to-date

  • with all of the new lessons.

  • Okay so we've been talking about modal verbs a lot

  • and in this lesson

  • I want to focus on the way

  • that they sound when they're spoken.

  • So this is a pronunciation lesson.

  • That means you have to be ready to join in!

  • Say the words out loud with me.

  • You must do this!

  • Well, you must do it

  • if you want to improve your pronunciation

  • and I'm pretty sure that you do.

  • Let's get our modal verbs up on the screen.

  • We've got could, should, would, may, might, can, will,

  • must and shall.

  • For the record, I hardly ever use shall

  • and amongst all of my native English speaking

  • friends and family,

  • I hardly ever hear it.

  • It's quite formal

  • and perhaps even a little old-fashion now.

  • It's the kind of thing that I would hear

  • my English grandma say

  • but not my friends.

  • So I'm actually just going to remove it from this lesson.

  • I'm going to get in trouble for that!

  • But I want to focus this pronunciation lesson

  • on contractions

  • and 'shall' is very rarely contracted anyway.

  • And one final disclaimer.

  • You are practising with me and my

  • Australian accent here,

  • which is a reasonably standard one

  • but there are differences between

  • native English-speaking accents.

  • Okay enough of that,

  • let's just get started with these words,

  • 'could', 'should' and 'would'.

  • Now the first thing

  • that you need to pay attention to here

  • is that the L in all of these three words is silent.

  • Don't try and pronounce that out.

  • It's actually easier than you think!

  • 'Would' is pronounced just like 'wood'

  • and 'could' and 'should' are also the same.

  • Could, should, would.

  • So let's look at all of the possible contractions

  • for these modals.

  • Now we learn in earlier lessons

  • that any of these modal verbs

  • can be used to talk about the past

  • simply by adding 'have'

  • followed by the past participle verb.

  • So in spoken English 'have' is often contracted

  • or shortened.

  • 'Could have' is often said

  • could've.

  • So the 'have' is shortened to just 've.

  • Now if you're listening to native English speakers

  • you might not even hear that sound.

  • 'Could have' can also sound like

  • coulda.

  • You coulda brought the dog.

  • You could've. You could have brought the dog.

  • And the contracted pronunciation of 'have' is the same

  • for all of the modal verbs.

  • 'Should have' becomes

  • should've

  • or shoulda.

  • We shoulda left earlier.

  • We should've left earlier.

  • 'Would have' becomes

  • would've

  • or woulda.

  • My dad would have known what to do.

  • My dad woulda what to do.

  • 'Might' and 'have' become

  • might've

  • or mighta.

  • She mighta taken the keys.

  • She might have taken the keys.

  • 'May' and 'have'

  • may've

  • or even maya - if you're listening to a native speaker.

  • I may have lost his address.

  • I maya lost his address.

  • 'Must' and 'have' becomes

  • must've

  • or musta.

  • We musta left our tickets in the car!

  • We must have left our tickets in the car!

  • Remember, it's okay to use these contractions

  • in informal writing

  • but in formal writing, exams, reports and letters,

  • use the full word 'have'.

  • And if you are ever unsure, just write 'have',

  • it's not too formal.

  • Okay so when we use

  • these modal verbs in a negative sentence,

  • 'not' is often contracted to the modal verb.

  • They're pushed together - that's what a contraction is.

  • So 'could' and 'not' is contracted and it sounds like

  • couldn't.

  • Shouldn't, wouldn't.

  • So the 'not' sounds like

  • at the end of the modal verb.

  • Okay let's go through this in a little bit more detail.

  • We've got /'kʊd/

  • nt/

  • /'kʊd(ə)nt/

  • I couldn't believe it! It was such a surprise!

  • I couldn't believe it!

  • /'ʃʊd/

  • nt/

  • /'ʃʊd(ə)nt/

  • Shouldn't we wait for Sam?

  • Shouldn't we wait?

  • /'wʊd/

  • nt/

  • /'wʊd(ə)nt/

  • They wouldn't ask you for money

  • unless they really needed it.

  • They wouldn't ask you.

  • /'mʌɪt/

  • nt/

  • /'mʌɪt(ə)nt/

  • or /'mʌɪt(ə)nt/ depending on the accent.

  • You mightn't believe me, but I'm telling the truth!

  • You mightn't believe me!

  • /ˈmʌs/

  • nt/

  • /ˈmʌs(ə)nt/

  • Notice that the middle 'T' is not pronounced

  • in the negative form.

  • It's mustn't,

  • not must-n't.

  • You mustn't wear those shoes in the house.

  • You mustn't wear those shoes.

  • Now of course, there are a few irregular negatives

  • which you already know.

  • 'Will not' is won't.

  • 'Can not' is can't.

  • 'Shall not' is shan't.

  • And 'may' doesn't even contract with 'not'.

  • You just need to say 'may not'.

  • Okay so now are you ready for level 10

  • pronunciation training?

  • These contractions get a little bit more difficult

  • when we start using negative modal verbs

  • to refer to the past with 'have'.

  • Then we have a structure that looks like this:

  • the subject with the modal verb

  • with 'not', 'have'

  • and then the past participle verb.

  • And yes, all three words

  • can be contracted together in spoken English.

  • Okay get ready for this!

  • 'Could not have'

  • couldn'tve.

  • Although you'll never see it written like this in English

  • but you will hear it spoken like this, all the time,

  • by native English speakers.

  • I could not have done that.

  • I could not have.

  • I could not have done that.

  • So 'should not have' becomes

  • shouldn't've.

  • The kids should not have been in the room.

  • The kids should not.

  • The kids should not have been in the room.

  • 'Would not have'

  • wouldn'tve.

  • He would not have approved this plan.

  • He would not have.

  • He would not have approved this plan.

  • 'Might not have'

  • mightn'tve.

  • She might not have heard you say that.

  • She might not have.

  • She might not have heard you say that.

  • 'Must not have'

  • mustn't've.

  • They mustn't've.

  • They must not have brought their son.

  • That one's tricky!

  • So that's it for this pronunciation lesson.

  • It was a lot to take in, wasn't it?

  • A lot of tongue twisting.

  • But you really should go back and watch

  • this lesson a few times and practise out loud with me.

  • Practise with me!

  • You can't improve your pronunciation just by listening

  • can you?

  • You need to imitate me, you need to copy me

  • as I say all of the different contractions

  • through this lesson and all of the example sentences.

  • In fact, imitating a native English speaker

  • is a really great way to practise and improve

  • your pronunciation.

  • It's going to help you to sound more natural

  • as you speak English

  • because you can listen to the sounds

  • that you should be making

  • and imitate them straight after.

  • Now if you want to keep practising like this,

  • by imitating me,

  • then try one of my imitation lessons right here,

  • or here - that one's good as well.

  • Thanks for watching and I'll see you

  • next week for another lesson here on mmmEnglish.

  • Bye for now!

Well hey there! I'm Emma from mmmEnglish!

Subtitles and vocabulary

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A2 UK modal pronunciation contracted mustn lesson native english

Natural English Pronunciation | Contractions

  • 1053 97
    Samuel posted on 2018/08/07
Video vocabulary