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  • So we have finally encroached upon the giant: India.

  • Some of you've been waiting a long time for this episode.

  • I'm just gonna say straight up:

  • You all know India is incredibly complex and diverse.

  • Even Indians have trouble understanding their own country.

  • Obviously, I won't be able to scratch even the surface in this episode.

  • But I'll try my best. A lot of you Indian geograpeeps have helped me along the way.

  • So thank you, and without further ado, let's begin!

  • ♫♫♫

  • It's time to learn Geography! NOW!!! ♫

  • Hey everybody. I'm your host Barby.

  • This place doesn't even need much of an introduction.

  • Everybody has heard of India. It's big. It's loud.

  • It's colorful, and most importantly it has a plethora of confusing territorial anomalies that I just can't wait to cover. Here we go!!

  • Political Geography

  • There's an old saying: India is a place where everyone is in a hurry,

  • but no one is ever on time.

  • First of all, India is located in South Asia right on the Indian and Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.

  • Bordered by six other countries. So close to seven but that land bridge between Sri Lanka

  • got wiped away like 600 years ago by a cyclone. India is divided into 29 states and 7 union territories

  • with the capital New Delhi which acts as its own administrative

  • unit located in the capital territory

  • Keep in mind that New Delhi is actually just the name of one of the districts in the capital territory made up of 11.

  • The largest city however, is actually Mumbai, with New Delhi, Bangalore (or Bengaluru) and Hyderabad

  • following after. However the four busiest airports are Delhi (Indira Gandhi International), Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji International)

  • Bengaluru's Kempegowda International and Chennai International in the south.

  • Ah, you know why I'm smiling

  • This is my favorite part of any episode

  • we ever make: territorial anomaly time!!

  • India is loaded with strange borders and

  • deliciously complex demarcation lines.

  • First of all what exactly is a Union territory?

  • In the simplest way I can put this Union Territories are places that are two distinct to be incorporated into a state

  • but too small to have their own local governments.

  • The first one of course is the Delhi National capital territory where the capital lies.

  • Chandigarh is a post-independent city constructed to replace Lahore as the capital of the Punjab area after it was split up between India and Pakistan.

  • Then you have the Island territories the smallest one

  • Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Andaman Islands being home to one of the last

  • uncontacted people groups on the planet:

  • the sentinelese tried who have been hostile to visitors and are therefore left alone.

  • As well as the Nicobar Islands which actually used to be a short-lived colony of Denmark.

  • Finally the three remaining territories are former European Colony towns and ports:

  • Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu

  • which are separated by 200 kilometers across the Gulf of Khambhat.

  • And the most confusing Union Territory: the French-speaking Puducherry

  • Which is actually split between four district cities across India:

  • Karaikal, Mahe, Yanam and Pondicherry.

  • Pondicherry is strange because it has 11 enclaves within the Tamil Nadu state or in this area you can also find the

  • experimental hippie-ish

  • commune with a little bit of controversy (look it up).

  • Here the Eastern States (also known as the Seven Sisters) are connected by this incredibly narrow 27-kilometer wide pathway known as the Siliguri Corridor.

  • This pathway is like a crucial artery that completes the India puzzle. Or so you would think?

  • Now let's discuss the juicy stuff.

  • Now in the China episode

  • I already talked about the disputed areas with India such as Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh.

  • The latter pretty much just belonging to India as it's almost completely inhabited and operated by Indians.

  • So let's move to the other disputes. Now as of 2015 the Bangladesh episode is already outdated as India and Bangladesh have finally come to

  • an agreement over the frighteningly

  • complex former enclave/exclave dispute. In the end India only lost about 40 square kilometers of land to Bangladesh.

  • And now only a few enclaves and exclaves exist.

  • Now let's head North.

  • Now when you try to draw the shape of India you might want to be careful which depiction you use.

  • Some might use this picture.

  • Some might use this.

  • Some might use this

  • and those that don't really study very well might use this.

  • The point is the whole area is like the most heavily militarized

  • diplomatically stressed out region on the planet.

  • It's already had like four wars in the past half century.

  • Basically, India, Pakistan (and to some extent China) all want the entire area for themselves although

  • it's more of like a Pakistan-India thing.

  • In the China episode we already discussed the Chinese disputes with India

  • so I won't cover those in this episode if you want to learn more just watch the China episode.

  • But anyway! This entire area was a former domain known as the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir that was under Royal

  • Maharaja rulers all the way up until independence.

  • Currently this place is split up by this fenced off militarized line known as the Line of Control (LoC) between India and Pakistan.

  • Why is this?

  • Well in the quickest way I can put this:

  • Pakistan: Okay the British are out. We get to take your land.

  • J&K: No, we want to be an independent princely state.

  • Pakistan: Er..we're supposed to take your land and majority of your people are Muslim.

  • Just like us. Even though your ruler is Hindu as well.

  • Soon after...

  • J&K: Hey India. If you help me, I'll let you secede my territory to your land with autonomy.

  • India: Deal.

  • *India beats Pakistan.*

  • J&K: Ha! your problem now.

  • I love how Mike played India. He totally represents India.

  • Oh, and keep in mind Pakistan's capital

  • Islamabad is less than 80 kilometers away from all that drama.

  • The Line of control meanders through the mountains until it stops at a point called NJ-9842.

  • This is where things get really crazy because from there you hit the Siachin glacier (the second longest nonpolar glacier) in the world and this

  • is pretty much the dead man's zone. After point NJ-9842 you hit the actual ground

  • position line: a series of military outposts that extend all the way to the Chinese border.

  • That means everything in this area is ground zero for the Indo-Pak tension.

  • You know the crazy thing is there's actually literally small towns of normal regular civilians living in these areas high up in the mountains.

  • Many of which just go about daily life going to work and raising their families.

  • Otherwise they have a river dispute with Nepal

  • and various River Islands disputed with Bangladesh.

  • Outside of all the dispute stuff though

  • India not only has the world's second largest road network and three of the world's top ten mega cities and their own space program

  • but they also have a copious abundance of landmarks and notable sites way too many to list.

  • But some of the ones that you guys the Indian Geograpeeps have told me to mention include places like

  • the abandoned Dhanuskhodi Ghost City

  • Golconda Fort

  • the four Pillars of Charminar

  • The Ajanta Buddhist art Caves

  • The Elora Monolithic ruins

  • Mandu Fortress

  • The Golden Temple (which feeds over a hundred thousand people a day; for free!)

  • The Gol Gumbaz mausoleum

  • The Kalavantin Durg Post

  • The ruins of Hampi

  • The Hill Forts of Rajasthan

  • Shatrunjaya hill (which is basically like a Mecca for Jains)

  • The temple of the Bodhi tree

  • Jal Mahal

  • Bhangarh Fort (the most haunted place in India)

  • Mohabbat Maqbara

  • and keep in mind. Just like in China

  • you can find a great wall of India in Rajsamand.

  • There's also the Paritala Anjaneya Temple (with the largest statue in India depicting Hanuman)

  • and over 150 acres the Sri Ranganathaswami Temple

  • the largest Hindu Temple in the world

  • And there's also that building with the stuff and that thing and whatever.

  • We could go on for centuries talking about India's rich constructed domicile

  • But what it lies on top of is even more fascinating?

  • Physical Geography

  • Now don't make this mistake.

  • I'm going to India. All I need are my sandals and sunscreen.

  • Welcome to Kargil!

  • (freezing) Oh crap!

  • Now as the seventh largest country in land area, India has a wide range of landscapes, climates and elevations

  • that all contrast from one corner to the other.

  • First of all, let's talk about the North. India sits on the Indian tectonic plate that essentially smashed into the Eurasian plate

  • which in return created the largest Mountain range in the world: the Himalayas.

  • The force is so strong that it's estimated that the Himalayas grow about 2.4 inches

  • or 6.1 centimeters every year. It's also here we can find Kanchenjunga: the tallest mountain in India or the third in the world, right on the border of Nepal.

  • Keep your eye on these mountains. These are pretty much the source of most of India's major rivers that give

  • life to the whole country.

  • That's why India takes these mountains so seriously.

  • You can also find the largest natural lake Wular, up in the Jammu & Kashmir area.

  • Below the Himalayas you reach the North Indian River plains, sometimes referred to as the Indus-Ganga.

  • This is the most fertile part of India where the most important Rivers like the Ganges and its tributaries flow.

  • Heading a little south you Reach the Satpura and Vindhya ranges that pretty much divide North India from South India.

  • On each side you get the Western and Eastern Ghat mountains which in return creates this massive triangle thing called the Deccan plateau.

  • This place is moderately forced especially in the east and the Chota Nagpur plateau

  • where you get a section of the swampy Sunderbans that they share with Bangladesh (check out the Bangladesh episode).

  • Head a little West and you get the dry Thar desert along the border with Pakistan.

  • As well as the Runn of Kutch (known as the salt desert)

  • And finally the only active volcanic area would be the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

  • with Barren Island having actual conical eruptions and Baratang having tame mud Volcanoes

  • Now here's the thing: although India has a relatively high population density

  • they do relatively well with maintaining their ecological footing

  • In fact in 2016 they beat a world record by planting (disputably) 50 million trees in one day.

  • They've also agreed to reforest about 12 percent of the country by 2030. The most heavily forested area being the Seven Sister states in East India.

  • Now one of the factors that contributes to this would be the fact that India has the lowest meat consumption in the world with

  • the highest population percentage of

  • vegetarians at around 40% (most of whom are lacto-vegetarian that consume milk products)

  • By the way in India when buying groceries this label means

  • Vegetarian and this one means

  • Non-vegetarian.

  • Nonetheless, the remainder of the population does typically eat some kind of animal

  • protein (mostly in the form of seafood or chicken).

  • But almost never beef or pork (unless a fewer part of the muslim or Christian minorities scattered throughout the west and east areas).

  • Now let's talk about the role of Cattle, shall we?

  • India has more cattle and livestock than anywhere else in the world at around 330 million

  • And it's interesting because since they have prevalent Hindu traditions, the killing of cows is illegal in many of the states except for a few,

  • and each state has varying degrees of punishment for committing intentional cow slaughter.

  • Keyword: Intentional. Cows accidentally get hit by cars all the time.

  • Once the cows too old to produce milk it typically is released into the open

  • to die naturally in the wild. "Ideally".

  • Nonetheless male cattle get it much worse as they are deemed as kind of "useless". Some places use them as draft animals for labour.

  • Some religious sects use them as sacrifices, but otherwise

  • They're typically sold to the underground market for beef or hides.

  • To this day, there are about six times as many female cows as male cattle in India so that means: yeah something's happening to the males.

  • Nonetheless, India does have the third highest carbon emission rate after China and the US. Fourth if you consider the EU.

  • However emission per capita they rank pretty low at only about two kilotons per person.

  • Contrast that with Qatar at about 40.

  • There are 94 national Parks, 501 Animal Sanctuaries

  • across the country where you can find some of the national animals like the Peacock,

  • the Ganges River Dolphin, the King Cobra,

  • the Indian elephant,

  • and the highest population of Bengal tigers in the world

  • which are all highly protected.

  • India also has the most irrigated land in the world

  • which allows them to become the number one producer of multiple products like

  • Millet

  • Bananas

  • Lemons (limes?),

  • Mangos,

  • Ginger,

  • Chickpeas,

  • milk, butter,

  • Fennel,

  • Jute,

  • and about 75% of the world's Spices alone come from India.

  • Speaking of which: food.

  • Typically you can find the staples: Roti, chapati and Naan in the North.

  • Idli and Dosa in the south

  • and everybody eats rice. More commonly commercialized Indian foods

  • that we in the west grew up knowing like:

  • Samosas, Tikka Masala

  • Tandoori and my favorite Indian dish: Palak Paneer.

  • These usually come to the Northern regions of India.

  • Mmm seriously India, you took spinach and made it fat.

  • I love you guys.

  • Otherwise the West is Mostly known for their chutneys,

  • and pickled foods as well as beef since there's a high number of Muslims and Christians

  • The south uses a lot more coconut and has

  • Some of the best curries like Poriyal, Sambar, Rasam and Tooto.

  • And the east is known for having the best desserts like Peda, Mishti doi, Rasgulla or Sandesh.

  • Speaking of which India is so diverse and complex that sometimes even Indian people need translators when going to different states.

  • It's about to get 10 times more confusing in about 3, ,2 1...

  • Demographics

  • Shashi Tharoor once said, "In India we celebrate the commonality of major differences;

  • we are a land of belonging rather than of blood".

  • First of all India has a population of about 1.3 Billion people and is the second most populous country in the world after China

  • with about 18% of the world's population.

  • About 72% of the country is indo-Aryan and a quarter are dravidian

  • and the majority of the remainder are Mongoloid Asian and other people groups.

  • They also use the Indian rupee as their currency. They use the type C, D and M plug outlet

  • and they drive on the left side of the road.

  • By the way, technically it's illegal for these banknotes to leave the country.

  • But you guys have sent me a lot of them for fan mail for fan Friday videos.

  • So I don't want to go to jail...again. (what)

  • Now, keep in mind those statistics that I just mentioned are incredibly generalized.

  • Of the Indo-Aryan and Dravidian communities there are about

  • two thousand different ethno-linguistic people groups in India with about

  • 645 District indigenous tribes (52 major ones). So obviously we can't cover them all.

  • But what we do know is that the North is very different from the South.

  • For one, the North mostly speaks in languages that are all related to the Indo-Aryan branch with languages like

  • Hindi, Bengali Punjabi and Gujarati.

  • Whereas the South speaks a completely unintelligible Dravidian branch with languages like