Placeholder Image

Subtitles section Play video

  • (calm electronic theme music)

  • Hello everyone, and welcome back to English with Lucy.

  • What a long time!

  • So much has happened since I've been away.

  • I basically went on a trip, and then I got really, really ill,

  • and I just had to recover.

  • I could hardly speak.

  • If you follow me on Instagram you will know about that,

  • but, I'm back today with a really

  • highly-requested grammar video.

  • We're going to be talking about the difference

  • between "this," "these," "that," and "those."

  • It's a seriously important lesson.

  • I hear people confuse these words all the time.

  • And, on almost every single Instagram post,

  • somebody asks me to make at least a video about "these" and "this."

  • So, hopefully, that's going to be really, really useful for you.

  • Before we get started, I'd just like to thank

  • the sponsor of today's video.

  • It's Lingoda, with an extra special offer for you.

  • Lingoda is an online language academy which employs native,

  • qualified teachers to deliver small group classes,

  • private classes, or a perfect combination of the two.

  • I've tried them out myself, and I totally approve.

  • I've got two special offers for you today,

  • so you can choose which one you want.

  • You can get 30% off all three month subscription packages with the code LUCY30OFF

  • and 50% off all certificate courses with the code LUCY50OFF.

  • With that last code, LUCY50OFF,

  • you can get six months of English lessons

  • for the price of three months,

  • and you can go up an entire English level.

  • All you have to do is click on the offer links in the description box and use the codes.

  • Right, let's get on with the lesson.

  • "This," "that," "these," and "those" are demonstratives.

  • We use "this," "that," "these," and "those,"

  • I have to get good at saying that,

  • to point to people or things.

  • "This" and "that" are singular,

  • and "these" and "those" are plural.

  • "This," singular, and "these," plural,

  • refer to things that are close to the speaker,

  • much like the word "here."

  • Here, "this," "these."

  • On the other hand, "that" and "those"

  • refer to things that are further away from the speaker,

  • much like the word "there."

  • "That," "those," there.

  • So, "this" and "these" are here,

  • "that" and "those" are there.

  • "This," "these," here.

  • "That," "those," there.

  • Learn that and remember it in your head,

  • because at some point you might need

  • to remember which one is which.

  • Before we talk about the ins and outs,

  • the fine details of "this," "that," "these," and "those,"

  • let's talk about the pronunciation of the words

  • and how they differ from each other,

  • because I know so many students struggle

  • with the pronunciation, especially of "this" and "these."

  • "That" and "those," completely different vowel sounds.

  • Ah, "that."

  • Oh, "those."

  • Those shouldn't be too difficult.

  • Note that sometimes people might put a glottal stop at the end of "that."

  • "Now that is amazing."

  • See? That's naturally how I would say,

  • "That is amazing."

  • "Those," make sure you're ending with a "zzz" sound.

  • Don't end it with a "sss" sound.

  • So, it's not "thossse," which is actually quite hard to say.

  • It's "thozze," "those."

  • Now, "this" and "these."

  • Well, firstly, the vowel sound is very similar,

  • but, it is different.

  • With "this," we have an "ih," "ih."

  • It's a short vowel sound.

  • "These" we have "eee."

  • It's a long vowel sound.

  • The mouth shape is the same "ih," "ee," "ih," "ee."

  • We just elongate the vowel sound for "these."

  • And then, the most important thing in my opinion,

  • is the phoneme at the end of the word.

  • "Thissss."

  • "Thezzzze."

  • So, "this" has a "sss" sound, and "these" has a "zzz" sound,

  • like with "those."

  • I hear a lot of students say, "Thessse. Thessse,"

  • and I don't know if they're trying to say, "This,"

  • or "these."

  • So, make sure, "Thisss," short "is" sound, ending in an "s."

  • "Is," "this."

  • "Theeese," long e sound ending in a zed: "Theeeze."

  • "Thesss" is like a combination of the two.

  • It's not the end of the world, but

  • you might miscommunicate a little.

  • You might be referring to multiple things.

  • You're trying to say, "These," which is a plural.

  • But people will think you're trying to say one thing,

  • "This," because it's a singular.

  • So, just bear that in mind and practise a little at home.

  • So, we use "this," "that," "these," and "those"

  • as determiners.

  • For example: "What's this book about?"

  • "That door's unlocked."

  • "I really like those socks."

  • We also use them as pronouns.

  • "This is lovely."

  • "That is a great achievement."

  • "You can take these home."

  • But, what are the rules?

  • We use "this" and "that" with singular, uncountable nouns,

  • singular, uncountable nouns.

  • "This bread is stale."

  • Stale means not fresh.

  • And, an uncountable example: "Please pass me that coffee."

  • We use "those" and "these" with plural nouns.

  • "These shoes are yours."

  • "Those houses are for sale."

  • Note: we tend to use "this" with words describing time and dates.

  • For example: "This morning, I went on a run."

  • Or, "I'm going to Paris this week."

  • We can use "that" with words describing time and date,

  • but it's normally about something that was a long time ago that you're remembering

  • or something in the future that might or might not happen.

  • For example: "Ah yes, the summer of 2012, that summer was a great summer."

  • It happened a long time ago.

  • Or, "I wonder if I'll ever get married. That day would be great!"

  • Just a subtle hint there.

  • Right! Let's look at pronouns.

  • We normally use "this," "that," "these," and "those"

  • as pronouns to refer to things or ideas.

  • For example: "We're going for a Sunday roast first,

  • and then for a walk around the village.

  • Are you happy with that?"

  • It means, "Are you happy with the idea of going for a roast first and then a walk?"

  • The whole thing is an idea at the moment.

  • "Are you happy with that idea?"

  • "It sounds like a great idea to me.

  • That is my dream Sunday."

  • Or, talking about music: "Can you turn that down please.

  • I hate Heavy Metal."

  • Or, things, if I'm talking about someone's earrings.

  • "Those are beautiful."

  • Those earrings are beautiful.

  • We can also use "this," "that," "those," and "these"

  • to refer to people when we want to identify ourselves or others

  • or we want to ask the identity of other people.

  • For example: "This is my brother, George."

  • Or, "That's my mother over there."

  • Or, "Hello. Is that John?

  • "This is Lucy speaking."

  • "Is that John?" because he's far away.

  • And, "This is Lucy," because I am right here.

  • I'm close to myself, in fact, I'm inside myself.

  • Well, anyway. Yes.

  • So, as I said at the beginning, we use "this" and "these"

  • to refer to things that are here

  • and "that" and "those" to refer to things that are over there.

  • "Can I use this pen?"

  • "I'll print this tomorrow."

  • "I got these done last week, in San Francisco."

  • It's true, it's an amazing colour, isn't it?

  • Beckoning Begonia by Chillac.

  • Back to English lessons.

  • "That" and "those": "What's that over there?"

  • "Those pictures we took yesterday were amazing!"

  • "Ah, Seville, that's my favourite place."

  • However, let's talk now about emotional distance.

  • Sometimes there's not a real physical distance,

  • there's an emotional distance.

  • This is pretty advanced, so, if you can conquer this,

  • you can conquer anything.

  • Remember, this isn't a 100% strict rule,