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  • Number Five

  • Drugged Spiders

  • In 1995, a few unfortunate spiders were given various common drugs out of their will.

  • Now they are slaves to the drugs given by the bad bad humans.

  • Well, not really.

  • But it is true that in 1995, NASA scientists have conducted a study

  • to see what various drugs do to spiders and their ability to spin their webs.

  • They continued the experiments done by J.A Nathanson in 1984

  • who continued another experiment by Swiss pharmacologist Peter N. Witt from 1948.

  • They administered the drugs by either dropping the drug solution on the spider's mouth

  • or by feeding them drugged flies or even by using a fine syringe.

  • In 1948, H.M Peters, a zoologist was studying spiders and their web-building techniques

  • but to his annoyance, spiders usually build their webs around 2 to 5 in the morning.

  • This was a problem because he needed to film their web building but he often fell asleep.

  • So he enlisted help from Peter N. Witt which suggested using drugs

  • in hopes for the spiders to change their web building schedule.

  • Surprisingly to them, rather than the spiders changing the time they spin their webs,

  • they instead change the patterns of their webs.

  • Here are some examples of what their webs look like.

  • Lets start of with no drugs, you could see how beautiful and detailed the web is.

  • On Caffeine, at 10µg it became uneven, disorganised and smaller than usual.

  • At 100µg, the ability of web weaving went down the toilet altogether.

  • On Marijuana, it seemed like they tried to make a proper web, but gave up halfway or loses concentration.

  • And on LSD, they surprisingly become more detailed and orderly.

  • There are more different drugs tested on spiders.

  • These are just to name a few.

  • Now, a reason as to why spiders were then continued to be used for drug testing in later experiments

  • is because spiders are cheap, produce relatively fast outcomes

  • and gives a good visualization of the effects of drugs

  • Another reason is that sadly, spiders aren't protected by the law and isn't considered

  • under animal cruelty because not many people care about spiders.

  • Number Four

  • Eliciting Sexual Behaviour in Turkeys

  • This experiment was made out of curiosity and nothing much.

  • It was to determine the minimal stimulus it needed to excite a turkey by Martin Schein

  • and Edgare Hale of the University of Pennsylvania.

  • The male turkeys apparently are not fussy at all.

  • Give them a lifelike model, and they'll be happy with them.

  • This is when the researchers removed bit by bit parts from the turkey model until they lost interest.

  • Tail, feet, wings gone.

  • But still the male bird remains unfazed.

  • Finally the researchers left just the head of a female turkey on a stick and STILL they

  • showed interest to mate, real severed head or model doesn't really matter.

  • Surprisingly, they prefer a pretty face rather than a pretty body, as a headless body is

  • less desirable.

  • This is probably because of the way turkeys mate.

  • They would usualy enshroud the females body and only leave the females neck and up in

  • its line of sight during the act of copulation.

  • Thus the excitement even from just a head on a stick.

  • Apparently they did the same experiment with chickens and well, them roosters prefered

  • the body rather than the heads.

  • Number Three

  • Electric Shocks and Puppies

  • An American psychologist by the name of Martin Seligman is pretty famous for his various

  • experiments that involves electric shocks on humans or puppies.

  • He had the Obedience Experiment in 1963, where he gets an actor connected to wires and on

  • the other end a person controlling how far they would go in shocking a living being on

  • the basis of being instructed.

  • His experiment proved that people will be able to kill if instructed as the responsibility

  • is technically not on them.

  • Though because critics said that the subjects might have noticed the actors acting and that

  • it was all a ruse, he changed the experiment by changing the actors with puppies and instead

  • of fake electric shocks into real ones.

  • Lets just say his experiment and conclusion was a success as twenty out of twenty six

  • subjects pushed the shock button to the maximum voltage.

  • Another experiment also by Seligman was the Learned Helplessness experiment done in 1965.

  • Learned helplessness is when you feel like you can't control a bad situation and end

  • up just giving up and accepting your fate.

  • He wanted to expand an old experiment by Pavlov that made dogs salivate with the sound of

  • the bell.

  • But his experiment involved a bell and electric shocks instead of food.

  • He strapped the dogs with a harness and everytime he rang the bell, an electric shock was given.

  • After conditioning the dog, he puts each dog into a bigger box which was divided in the

  • centre with a small fence where one side would shock the dogs while the other would be safe.

  • So putting the dog inside, they rang the bell, but the dogs only cowered and braced itself

  • even after a real shock was done.

  • While when dogs that was never conditioned got zapped, it would jump the fence to escape.

  • Thus, learned helplessness is a psychological problem even humans have.

  • Number Two

  • The Two Headed Dog

  • This is the famous now unethical experiment done by a Soviet scientist named Vladimir

  • Demikhov in the 1950s.

  • This experiment involved two dogs and making them into one.

  • Well a dog with two heads to be precise.

  • Demikhov grafted the head, shoulders and front legs of a puppy onto the neck of an adult dog.

  • He connected the blood vessels in a way that the adult dog's heart would be enough to pump

  • blood for both the dogs.

  • But they left the esophageal tube of the puppy unconnected to anything except the outside.

  • The surgery was quite a success.

  • Both dogs were alive after the surgery.

  • The puppy yawned when it woke up and the big dog was confused and tried to shake it off.

  • Both dogs maintained their own personality where the puppy were feisty and playful while

  • the older dog just seemed unamused.

  • It interesting how when the big dog got thirsty, the puppy would also get thirsty even without

  • its esophageal tube connected to the rest of its alimentary tract.

  • So the milk they fed the dogs could be seen dribbling from it.

  • Over the course of fifteen years, Demikhov made a total of twenty of the two headed dogs.

  • None of them lived long because of tissue rejection but the longest ever recorded was

  • just a month and the first ever two headed dog only survived for six days.

  • But because of this surgical experiment.

  • It expanded the surgical techniques and medicine of the possibility of transplanting between humans.

  • Such as the heart and lung transplants.

  • Number One

  • Mother?

  • Would you choose a fluffy blanket that does nothing or a cold steel fence that feeds you?

  • This is technically what was done on infant rhesus monkeys as a psychological experiment.

  • Dr. Harry Harlow, a psychologist, was quite an unsympathetic person and is famous for

  • his Monkey Love psychological experiments.

  • He subjected a lot of experiments on different monkeys which were all seperated from their

  • biological mothers from birth.

  • The most famous experiment is the one where the monkeys were given two inanimate surrogate

  • mothers.

  • One was made from bare-wires and the other was covered in cloth.

  • He presented the infants with the surrogates under different conditions.

  • Condition one had the wire mother holding a bottle of food and the cloth mother remains

  • stationary doing nothing and condition two had the cloth mother holding the bottle while

  • the wire mother does nothing.

  • Either condition showed an overwhelming result where the infant macaques prefered to cling

  • on the cloth mother no matter if it provided food or not.

  • When subjected to fear, if the surrogate mother is not present, the macaques would be so afraid,

  • they would be paralyzed, avoids the source of their fear, huddle into a ball and start

  • sucking their thumbs.

  • But if a surrogate mother is present, the macaques shows less fear and would show more

  • courage to explore and even attack the source of its fear.

  • Dr Harlow did a lot of experiments with different conditions on the infant macaques.

  • There's another one that's pretty sad for the macaques.

  • It involved the macaques to be isolated in darkness for up to one year.

  • Either from birth or repetitively from their peers.

  • They found out, having less social contact gets the monkeys to be severely psychologically

  • disturbed and depressed.

  • His aim with the experiments were to prove that the psychology between an infant's love

  • and needs and the feeling of attachment and loss.

  • Of course he used monkeys, but he used it as a base that humans would act the same way

  • in terms of separating children from their mothers and proves how "contact comfort" is

  • important for the psychological development and health of infant monkeys and children.

  • Also yes it was highly controversial and now definitely deemed unethical.

Number Five

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B1 US experiment infant web puppy mother electric

5 Most Bizarre Experiments on Animals

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    jasicko posted on 2018/05/14
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