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  • Have you ever played this game with wooden blocks?

  • My children and I like playing it sometimes.

  • It's all about achieving balance and thinking about placement.

  • If you fit the blocks together with care, they keep building upwards.

  • But if you rush and get careless, the tower is more likely to fall.

  • This reminds me a bit of grammar and how we fit words together into sentences.

  • Do it with care and you can build effective sentences.

  • If you rush and get sloppy, however, things can fall apart and communication isn't so successful.

  • That's why I think it will be helpful for us to review the kinds of clauses we have in English.

  • Understanding clauses will help you build sentences. If you can build a variety of sentences,

  • then you can accomplish even larger tasks, such as writing clear email or putting together a solid essay or report.

  • If you agree that grammar is a helpful tool to master, then be sure you're subscribed to my channel so that you get all my future grammar lessons.

  • Well, let's begin!

  • There are two basic kinds of clauses: independent and dependent clauses.

  • Both kinds have a subject and a verb. But independent clauses can stand alone and make sense. Dependent clauses can't.

  • Can you identify which clauses are independent?

  • These are independent clauses. They can stand alone and form simple sentences.

  • The other clauses are dependent clauses. They fall into the category of fragments.

  • Each dependent clause is only part of a sentence.

  • We have to put a dependent clause together with independent clauses to form a sentence.

  • Now these are complete ideas and they make sense.

  • Independent clauses can follow different patterns, but they all have a subject and a verb

  • If you'd like to study patterns like subject-verb, subject-verb-object, and subject-verb-complement,

  • then you can click to watch my lesson on sentence patterns.

  • There are three different types of dependent clauses: noun clauses, adjective clauses, adverb clauses.

  • All three types of dependent clauses must combine with a main clause or independent clause to form a complete sentence.

  • When we put a dependent clause together with an independent clause, we get a complex sentence.

  • We can put dependent and independent clauses together in various combinations to get:

  • compound sentences,

  • complex sentences,

  • and even complex-compound sentences.

  • It helps to be familiar with these combinations because then you can achieve variety in your writing.

  • If you'd like to review simple, compound, complex, and complex-compound sentences, check out the video description.

  • I'm going to include some useful links. There will be a link to my website, and there's a page with useful videos to improve your writing.

  • Let's talk about noun clauses first.

  • One kind of noun clause is an embedded question or wh- clause.

  • These noun clauses start with a question word and, of course, they have a subject and verb.

  • As a whole unit, a noun clause functions like a noun.

  • That means that an embedded question can be a subject,

  • an object of a verb,

  • an object of a preposition,

  • and even a complement.

  • If you need to review embedded questions, then click on the link. I'll also place links to related lessons in the video description.

  • Another type of noun clause is a "that" clause.

  • We commonly use "that" clauses as objects of verbs, and when we do, we often omit the wordthat.”

  • Check out these examples.

  • We see that clauses after reporting verbs.

  • We also see "that" clauses subject and adjective complements.

  • Here are more examples.

  • Okay. Onward to adjective clauses.

  • Hopefully, you've watched my series on this topic, so you know how to form adjective clauses and where to place them.

  • Just like noun clauses function like nouns, well, adjective clauses basically function like adjectives.

  • They describe or modify nouns or pronouns.

  • The big difference is position.

  • Single-word adjectives can appear before a noun or after a linking verb.

  • But an adjective clause has to follow the head noun as closely as possible.

  • Recall that there are two types of adjective clauses. Identifying and non-identifying.

  • Identifying clauses, also known as restrictive clauses, are necessary.

  • We need them to identify the head noun. We use no commas with these identifying or restrictive clauses.

  • Non-identifying clauses (or non-restrictive clauses) give additional information that could be left out,

  • and we set them off with commas when we write them or we drop our pitch when we say them.

  • Note that adjective clauses are also called relative clauses. And we use use relative pronouns and relative adverbs to build them.

  • I know I'm using a lot of terminology right now, but I think you can follow along, especially with the help of all the examples, right?

  • Okay. Let's move on to the final type of dependent clause.

  • Adverb clauses, or as some say, adverbial clauses, allow us to add information about things like time and reason.

  • Adverb clauses answer questions just like adverbs: How? How much? Why? When? Where?

  • Remember, all this additional information doesn't make sense alone. An adverb clause is a fragment until it combines with a main clause.

  • Another term you may hear when people talk about a dependent clause is a subordinate clause.

  • It's the same thing.

  • The prefixsubmeans below or or under.

  • A subordinate clause must hook up with a main clause (an independent clause) to make sense.

  • Adverb clauses are examples of subordinate clauses.

  • They have subordinating conjunctions. Those are connecting words like after, before, because, if.

  • Here are different types of adverb clauses.

  • This is not meant to be a complete list of all subordinating conjunctions, but I'll show you a good variety.

  • Here are more subordinating conjunctions to form adverb clauses.

  • Remember this is not a complete list.

  • Adverb clauses have some flexibility within a sentence.

  • They can come before or after the main clause.

  • If the adverb clause is first, we use a comma to separate the two clauses.

  • If the adverb clause is second, we usually write the sentence without a comma between the two clauses.

  • Something adverb and adjective clauses have in common is that they both can be reduced to phrases.

  • If you'd like some practice reducing adverb clauses, click on the link to my other lesson. I'll also put the link in the video description.

  • Okay. Let's see how well you followed. Take a short quiz to review.

  • Note how there's a pause, and I drop my pitch slightly when I say that nonrestrictive clause.

  • So how did you do? I hope you found it helpful to study grammar with me

  • Please like this video if you think it's important to develop your grammar skills.

  • That's all for now.

  • Thanks for watching and happy studies!

Have you ever played this game with wooden blocks?

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B1 US clause adverb noun dependent adjective independent

Types of Clauses: Advanced English Grammar with JenniferESL

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    xia posted on 2018/03/16
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