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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

  • I grew up in Bihar, India's poorest state,

  • and I remember when I was six years old,

  • I remember coming home one day to find a cart

  • full of the most delicious sweets at our doorstep.

  • My brothers and I dug in,

  • and that's when my father came home.

  • He was livid, and I still remember how we cried

  • when that cart with our half-eaten sweets

  • was pulled away from us.

  • Later, I understood why my father got so upset.

  • Those sweets were a bribe

  • from a contractor who was trying to get my father

  • to award him a government contract.

  • My father was responsible for building roads in Bihar,

  • and he had developed a firm stance against corruption,

  • even though he was harassed and threatened.

  • His was a lonely struggle, because Bihar

  • was also India's most corrupt state,

  • where public officials were enriching themselves,

  • [rather] than serving the poor who had no means

  • to express their anguish if their children

  • had no food or no schooling.

  • And I experienced this most viscerally

  • when I traveled to remote villages to study poverty.

  • And as I went village to village,

  • I remember one day, when I was famished and exhausted,

  • and I was almost collapsing

  • in a scorching heat under a tree,

  • and just at that time, one of the poorest men in that village

  • invited me into his hut and graciously fed me.

  • Only I later realized that what he fed me

  • was food for his entire family for two days.

  • This profound gift of generosity

  • challenged and changed the very purpose of my life.

  • I resolved to give back.

  • Later, I joined the World Bank, which sought to fight

  • such poverty by transferring aid from rich to poor countries.

  • My initial work focused on Uganda, where I focused

  • on negotiating reforms with the Finance Ministry of Uganda

  • so they could access our loans.

  • But after we disbursed the loans, I remember

  • a trip in Uganda where I found newly built schools

  • without textbooks or teachers,

  • new health clinics without drugs,

  • and the poor once again without any voice or recourse.

  • It was Bihar all over again.

  • Bihar represents the challenge of development:

  • abject poverty surrounded by corruption.

  • Globally, 1.3 billion people live on less than

  • $1.25 a day, and the work I did in Uganda

  • represents the traditional approach to these problems

  • that has been practiced since 1944,

  • when winners of World War II, 500 founding fathers,

  • and one lonely founding mother,

  • gathered in New Hampshire, USA,

  • to establish the Bretton Woods institutions,

  • including the World Bank.

  • And that traditional approach to development

  • had three key elements. First, transfer of resources

  • from rich countries in the North

  • to poorer countries in the South,

  • accompanied by reform prescriptions.

  • Second, the development institutions that channeled

  • these transfers were opaque, with little transparency

  • of what they financed or what results they achieved.

  • And third, the engagement in developing countries

  • was with a narrow set of government elites

  • with little interaction with the citizens, who are

  • the ultimate beneficiaries of development assistance.

  • Today, each of these elements is opening up

  • due to dramatic changes in the global environment.

  • Open knowledge, open aid, open governance,

  • and together, they represent three key shifts

  • that are transforming development

  • and that also hold greater hope for the problems

  • I witnessed in Uganda and in Bihar.

  • The first key shift is open knowledge.

  • You know, developing countries today will not simply

  • accept solutions that are handed down to them

  • by the U.S., Europe or the World Bank.

  • They get their inspiration, their hope,

  • their practical know-how,

  • from successful emerging economies in the South.

  • They want to know how China lifted 500 million people

  • out of poverty in 30 years,

  • how Mexico's Oportunidades program

  • improved schooling and nutrition for millions of children.

  • This is the new ecosystem of open-knowledge flows,

  • not just traveling North to South, but South to South,

  • and even South to North,

  • with Mexico's Oportunidades today inspiring New York City.

  • And just as these North-to-South transfers are opening up,

  • so too are the development institutions

  • that channeled these transfers.

  • This is the second shift: open aid.

  • Recently, the World Bank opened its vault of data

  • for public use, releasing 8,000 economic and social indicators

  • for 200 countries over 50 years,

  • and it launched a global competition to crowdsource

  • innovative apps using this data.

  • Development institutions today are also opening

  • for public scrutiny the projects they finance.

  • Take GeoMapping. In this map from Kenya,

  • the red dots show where all the schools financed by donors

  • are located, and the darker the shade of green,

  • the more the number of out-of-school children.

  • So this simple mashup reveals that donors

  • have not financed any schools in the areas

  • with the most out-of-school children,

  • provoking new questions. Is development assistance

  • targeting those who most need our help?

  • In this manner, the World Bank has now GeoMapped

  • 30,000 project activities in 143 countries,

  • and donors are using a common platform

  • to map all their projects.

  • This is a tremendous leap forward in transparency

  • and accountability of aid.

  • And this leads me to the third, and in my view,

  • the most significant shift in development:

  • open governance. Governments today are opening up

  • just as citizens are demanding voice and accountability.

  • From the Arab Spring to the Anna Hazare movement in India,

  • using mobile phones and social media

  • not just for political accountability

  • but also for development accountability.

  • Are governments delivering services to the citizens?

  • So for instance, several governments in Africa

  • and Eastern Europe are opening their budgets to the public.

  • But, you know, there is a big difference between a budget

  • that's public and a budget that's accessible.

  • This is a public budget. (Laughter)

  • And as you can see, it's not really accessible

  • or understandable to an ordinary citizen

  • that is trying to understand how the government is spending its resources.

  • To tackle this problem, governments are using new tools

  • to visualize the budget so it's more understandable

  • to the public.

  • In this map from Moldova, the green color shows

  • those districts that have low spending on schools

  • but good educational outcomes,

  • and the red color shows the opposite.

  • Tools like this help turn a shelf full of inscrutable documents

  • into a publicly understandable visual,

  • and what's exciting is that with this openness,

  • there are today new opportunities for citizens

  • to give feedback and engage with government.

  • So in the Philippines today, parents and students

  • can give real-time feedback on a website,

  • Checkmyschool.org, or using SMS, whether teachers

  • and textbooks are showing up in school,

  • the same problems I witnessed in Uganda and in Bihar.

  • And the government is responsive. So for instance,

  • when it was reported on this website that 800 students

  • were at risk because school repairs had stalled

  • due to corruption, the Department of Education

  • in the Philippines took swift action.

  • And you know what's exciting is that this innovation

  • is now spreading South to South, from the Philippines

  • to Indonesia, Kenya, Moldova and beyond.

  • In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, even an impoverished

  • community was able to use these tools

  • to voice its aspirations.

  • This is what the map of Tandale looked like

  • in August, 2011. But within a few weeks,

  • university students were able to use mobile phones

  • and an open-source platform to dramatically map

  • the entire community infrastructure.

  • And what is very exciting is that citizens were then

  • able to give feedback as to which health or water points

  • were not working, aggregated

  • in the red bubbles that you see,

  • which together provides a graphic visual

  • of the collective voices of the poor.

  • Today, even Bihar is turning around and opening up

  • under a committed leadership that is making government

  • transparent, accessible and responsive to the poor.

  • But, you know, in many parts of the world,

  • governments are not interested in opening up

  • or in serving the poor, and it is a real challenge

  • for those who want to change the system.

  • These are the lonely warriors

  • like my father and many, many others,

  • and a key frontier of development work

  • is to help these lonely warriors join hands

  • so they can together overcome the odds.

  • So for instance, today, in Ghana, courageous reformers

  • from civil society, Parliament and government,

  • have forged a coalition for transparent contracts

  • in the oil sector, and, galvanized by this,

  • reformers in Parliament are now investigating dubious contracts.

  • These examples give new hope, new possibility

  • to the problems I witnessed in Uganda

  • or that my father confronted in Bihar.

  • Two years ago, on April 8th, 2010, I called my father.

  • It was very late at night, and at age 80,

  • he was typing a 70-page public interest litigation

  • against corruption in a road project.

  • Though he was no lawyer, he argued the case in court

  • himself the next day. He won the ruling,

  • but later that very evening,

  • he fell, and he died.

  • He fought till the end, increasingly passionate

  • that to combat corruption and poverty,

  • not only did government officials need to be honest,

  • but citizens needed to join together

  • to make their voices heard.

  • These became the two bookends of his life,

  • and the journey he traveled in between

  • mirrored the changing development landscape.

  • Today, I'm inspired by these changes, and I'm excited

  • that at the World Bank, we are embracing

  • these new directions, a significant departure

  • from my work in Uganda 20 years ago.

  • We need to radically open up development

  • so knowledge flows in multiple directions,

  • inspiring practitioners, so aid becomes transparent,

  • accountable and effective, so governments open up

  • and citizens are engaged and empowered

  • with reformers in government.

  • We need to accelerate these shifts.

  • If we do, we will find that the collective voices

  • of the poor will be heard in Bihar,

  • in Uganda, and beyond.

  • We will find that textbooks and teachers

  • will show up in schools for their children.

  • We will find that these children, too,

  • have a real chance of breaking their way out of poverty.

  • Thank you. (Applause)

  • (Applause)

Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

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【TED】Sanjay Pradhan: How open data is changing international aid (Sanjay Pradhan: How open data is changing international aid)

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    Zenn posted on 2017/08/01
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