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  • My name's Ronnie and I'm going to teach you some grammar.

  • It's kind of a... difficult grammar, but once you learn this overview of-dunh, dunh, dunh,

  • dunh-"Auxiliary Verbs", English grammar is going to become easier for you, I hope.

  • So, if you're just beginning to learn English grammar, oh, stay in there, you can do it.

  • Yuri, this goes out to you in Salvador, Brazil.

  • Let's keep going, man.

  • We have three auxiliary verbs that we use in English: "be", "do", and "have".

  • But the thing about the auxiliary verbs is that each auxiliary verb will tell us what

  • kind of grammar we're going to use with it.

  • So, let's look at the first one: "be".

  • So, "be" in its form in the present tense is "am", "is", "are"; negative: "am not",

  • "isn't", and "aren't".

  • These are present.

  • The past tense would be present...

  • Or, no.

  • The past tense in the positive is "was" and "were"; negative: "wasn't" and "weren't".

  • So, how do we actually use this auxiliary verb?

  • And the answer is: We use it in two forms of English grammar.

  • The first one is progressive.

  • So, if you have a progressive sentence, we have present progressive, past progressive,

  • and future progressive.

  • Every time we have a sentence in English with progressive, we know we're going to use the

  • verb "to be".

  • So, if our sentence is present progressive, we're going to use the present tense of the

  • verb "to be", "is am are" with a verb with "ing".

  • So, in English grammar, anything that's progressive or continuous is another word for the same

  • grammar, it's always going to be an "ing" on the verb.

  • The thing that changes and tells us the grammar is the verb "to be".

  • Present is: "is", "am", "are", plus verb "ing", but the past, we're going to use the past

  • tense: "was" and "were" plus verb "ing".

  • So, progressive will always have a verb "ing".

  • The thing that changes the tense of it is the verb "to be".

  • We have future progressive or future continuous.

  • In this one we're simply going to use the verb "will", so in this one we have "will

  • be" plus verb "ing".

  • For example: "I will be eating pizza."

  • This tells us what's going to happen in the future.

  • "I was eating pizza" was the past, and "I am eating pizza", something's happening now,

  • that's present progressive.

  • So, the progressive will always have the verb "to be", either past, present, or future,

  • and it will always have an "ing" on the verb.

  • Okay, cool.

  • Let's get more complicated, okay?

  • We have another structure in English grammar called passive.

  • Now, passive voice basically you're taking the action from the person or the focus on

  • the person, and we're putting it towards the activity.

  • So, in a normal English sentence we would say: "I eat lunch", but in a passive sentence,

  • we're taking away the subject and we're focusing on the action.

  • So, with the passive voice we have future passive, present passive, and past passive.

  • It goes along the same idea, is that the verb "to be" is going to tell us: Is it present?

  • Or if it's past.

  • When we use a passive sentence, we can only ever use the past participle of the verb,

  • or the third step of the verb.

  • So, passive will always be the verb "to be" plus the past participle.

  • If it's present, it's: "is", "am", "are", plus PP, past participle.

  • If it's past, it's "was" and "were" plus past participle.

  • It's hard to say the past participle, so I'm going to say PP.

  • I have to go PP.

  • So, as an example, we say: "Lunch is eaten", present tense.

  • "Lunch was eaten".

  • I'm going to step away and let you check that out.

  • Let your brain absorb it.

  • Make some sentences using this and the verb "to be".

  • If we used the future passive, I could say: "Lunch will be eaten", so again, when we're

  • using the future, we use "will be", but we're going to use the past participle.

  • Have you made some sentences?

  • Do it now.

  • Come on.

  • Make some sentences.

  • Go.

  • Okay.

  • So we've done the verb "to be".

  • And hopefully it's beginning to make sense, because English grammar rarely makes sense.

  • I'm going to make it make it make sense for you.

  • So, the next one is the auxiliary verb "do".

  • Now, this one's interesting because we only use it in the negative form in the simple

  • present, or we use it in the negative simple past.

  • So we don't have to worry about the positive, but we do use it for the negative in the simple

  • present and the negative in the past, and for questions.

  • So, let's check out first the simple present, or present simple.

  • We only use this auxiliary verb for the negative and the question form.

  • So, in the negative we're going to use subject, plus "don't" or "doesn't", plus the base verb.

  • Now, this is where English gets tricky and you have to remember that if it is "I", "you",

  • "we" and "they", we use "don't".

  • But if it's "he", "she", or "it", we have to use "doesn't".

  • So this is...

  • You always have to be careful with your subject and your verb agreement.

  • They have to agree.

  • So, as an example: "I don't like pizza."

  • If I used "he", I would say: "He doesn't like pizza."

  • And we have to be careful and use the base verb.

  • Okay?

  • The question would be: "Does he like pizza?"

  • Ar?

  • Like a dog.

  • If it's a question form, we put the auxiliary verb first: "do", "doesn't", subject, plus

  • the base verb.

  • Not the base verb, the base verb.

  • We also use this in the past simple, again, only with negative and only with a question.

  • So, the way that we change "did"...

  • Sorry, "does" into the negative is "didn't" in the past, but this is where we always make

  • a mistake.

  • I've told you English grammar is crazy, I'm not joking.

  • When we use "didn't", we always have to use the base verb.

  • So, this is where we get confused, because we think: "Ronnie, this is past tense."

  • So, if it's past tense, we have to use the past of the verb-mm-mm-because our auxiliary

  • verb "didn't" makes the sentence past.

  • So, if it's an auxiliary verb it's going to tell us if it's past or present, and we have

  • to use the base verb.

  • So, we have to say: "He didn't go home."

  • You cannot say: "He didn't went home."

  • That's grammatically wrong.

  • This verb tells us it's past, and this verb tells us it's present.

  • Oh, that's kind of cool when you learn it.

  • If you're doing the question form, it's very similar to this, past tense: "Did", subject,

  • plus your base.

  • Again, you always have to be careful.

  • Even though it is past, we actually have to use the base verb because the "did" or the

  • auxiliary verb tells us: "Hey, this is a past tense, not a present tense.

  • Please use the base verb."

  • So: "Did", "didn't".

  • Ah.

  • "Didn't" in the negative and "did" in the question.

  • Another tip when you are speaking English and you're asking someone a question, always

  • ask them a positive question.

  • It's more difficult for the listener, and for the speaker, and for everyone involved

  • if you use a negative question.

  • So, just for now, you're just learning this, always ask a positive question.

  • "Did I go home?", "Didn't I go home?"

  • The negative question is always much more confusing, and we need to make English grammar

  • simpler.

  • Ah.

  • We're almost done here.

  • I'm going to step away and let your absorb this.

  • Please make one, two, three, four sentences using the auxiliary verb "do".

  • And we're back with the last one, the last one, the most exciting one maybe ever.

  • Yeah.

  • This is the most exciting one.

  • We are going to use "have has", negative "haven't", and "hasn't", and then we have the past: "had"

  • and "hadn't".

  • So, when we use the verb as an auxiliary "have", we use it for perfect tenses in English.

  • They're so perfect.

  • So, when we use the perfect tense, our verb is always going to be the past participle,

  • just like in the passive.

  • So the passive and the perfects in English, we always use the past participle.

  • And again, we can have the future perfect, we can have present perfect, and we can have

  • past perfect.

  • So, the way we form the future perfect is we're going to use subject with "will", so

  • future we use "will" all the time, "have", and then the past participle.

  • Okay?

  • Or we can also use "has".

  • So, the future we use "will" plus "have", plus the past participle or the PP.

  • If we're using present perfect, we're going to use the subject: "have" or "has", plus

  • the past participle.

  • So, if you can think about this: "have" in the present tense is "have" and "has", so

  • in the past tense we're going to use "had" plus the past participle.

  • So, if we're using past perfect, we're using "had", plus PP.

  • If we're talking about present perfect, we're using "has" plus PP.

  • People get confused and a lot of people think that the present perfect is the present tense,

  • but it's not.

  • The present perfect talks about the past.

  • The thing that makes the verb present or past is our wonderful auxiliary verb: "have".

  • If the verb "have" is present perfect, we use the present tense of the verb.

  • If we use the past tense, if we use past perfect, we're going to use the past tense of "have".

  • So: "I haven't eaten lunch.

  • Oh, I'm hungry."

  • Future: "I will have played seven games", so we're using "will", "have", plus the past