Placeholder Image

Subtitles section Play video

  • You might remember a pair of TED-Ed Lessons

  • written and performed by two educators,

  • Brad Voytek and Tim Verstynen.

  • These two scientists used a drooling,

  • hag-faced, animated zombie

  • as a mechanism to model

  • the symptoms and medical diagnosis process

  • for various neurological conditions.

  • For example, they spent time debating

  • whether the zombie's stiff gait

  • was caused by basal ganglia damage,

  • like that in Parkinson's patients,

  • or by severe damage to the cerebellum,

  • which can cause ataxia.

  • In each Lesson, Brad and Tim certainly showed us

  • how the walking dead can help us

  • understand neuroscience,

  • but how can the walking dead

  • help us understand animation?

  • Or, more simply put,

  • how did this one-eyed, decaying,

  • and very much dead pile of pixels walk?

  • Puppet animation is a relatively quick solution

  • to creating 2-D animation of a hand-drawn character.

  • Since the character does not need

  • to be drawn over and over again,

  • it can be animated by moving each element individually.

  • Aside from their portrayal

  • in a few great modern zombie flicks,

  • these concocted carcasses are generally known

  • for limited, stiff movements.

  • Their traditional stride is perfect

  • for puppet-style animation.

  • When designing a 2-D zombie puppet,

  • or any other type of puppet,

  • it is important to find a design

  • that is both fun and functional in a flat environment.

  • For example, you might not want to puppetize, say,

  • Julie Andrews in the "Sound of Music"

  • as she spins in circles.

  • We used rotoscoping for her,

  • but that's another lesson.

  • Always begin by sketching and designing your puppet

  • in a neutral pose

  • like this.

  • This will allow it to easily transition

  • into and out of a variety of extreme positions.

  • Once a character transitions

  • from concept stetches

  • to final design,

  • the next step is to break up the pieces

  • in order to assemble a puppet,

  • keeping in mind that each element

  • needs to have an appropriate amount of overlap

  • so that the Zombie can bend at his joints.

  • An understanding of anatomy is an integral part

  • of designing any 2-D or 3-D animated character

  • that needs to move realistically

  • in the context of its environment.

  • Regardless of the number of dimensions your character has,

  • you'll need to create a skeleton,

  • which in animation terms is known as a rig.

  • Once the rig is finalized

  • and the range of motion is determined,

  • the next step is to choose anchor points.

  • Each piece of artwork has its own anchor point,

  • which essentially assigns the limb a hinge,

  • which in this case is a joint.

  • Next, line the artwork up

  • so that the anchor point for the forearm-elbow

  • sits on the upper arm's elbow area.

  • Once all the artwork is in place,

  • you can use an expression script

  • that creates links between the body parts.

  • In this case, we used the expressions

  • provided in After Effects.

  • By parenting one layer to another,

  • you could teach the forearm

  • to follow the upper arm

  • and the hand to follow the forearm.

  • This is what's called forward kinematics.

  • The alternative is inverse kinematics,

  • in which a separate set of scripts control the motions.

  • In this case, a controller is attached

  • to the anchor point of the hand.

  • The animator then uses the controller

  • to position the hand.

  • The scripts will then use an algorithm

  • to make sure that the rest of the arm

  • and body follows along.

  • Once the character is rigged,

  • we can start animating.

  • Often times, puppet animation is done

  • as straight-ahead action,

  • which means moving a character frame-by-frame

  • from beginning to end.

  • Another approach is pose-to-pose animation,

  • which involves choosing your key poses first,

  • and then filling in the intervals,

  • or in-betweens, later.

  • Regardless of the method of motion,

  • it's important to think of your 2-D puppet

  • as a piece of paper.

  • It can move across a surface

  • in a variety of poses,

  • but it cannot move in perspective.

  • If your character needs to turn its head,

  • then you will need to create additional art.

  • We created three different zombie heads

  • and six different hands

  • to achieve different movements and angles

  • that the neutral pose couldn't accommodate.

  • You can recreate almost everything

  • you've seen in this Lesson

  • with a pen, paper, and a camera.

  • The method is called cut-out animation,

  • and it was around well before the age of software.

  • To create a stumbling 2-D zombie,

  • or a speeding narwhal,

  • or even an abstract character

  • with some semblance of joints,

  • simply print,

  • cut,

  • and fasten your character's limbs together

  • in a neutral pose.

  • You can use fasteners,

  • string,

  • or even just place and move them each time.

  • All the same rules and theories

  • that we use in the computer

  • apply to cut-out animation,

  • except under the camera,

  • the only way to animate is straight ahead.

You might remember a pair of TED-Ed Lessons

Subtitles and vocabulary

Operation of videos Adjust the video here to display the subtitles

B2 TED-Ed puppet animation zombie character pose

【TED-Ed】Making a TED-Ed Lesson: Animating zombies

  • 266 16
    陳俊安 posted on 2013/08/29
Video vocabulary